5 - Riding a plane before or after sunset: This issue has two forms:
First, the sun sets while a person is still in his homeland and he breaks the fast then rides a plane and sees the sun, in this case, both his fast and breaking the fast is valid because he followed the proof from the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Allah the Almighty says: “Then complete your fast until the nightfall." [Surat Al Baqarah: 187]. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “When you see night falling from this side, the fasting person should break his fast." [Reported by Al Bukhari and Muslim]. Such a person breaks his fast according to the proof, as for seeing the sun afterwards, it does not affect the fast and it is not incumbent on him to continue fasting again.
Second, a fasting person travels shortly before sunset, then the plane goes up and moves to sunset side, in this case the sunset delays for a while, may be one hour or two. Such a person does not break the fast until the sun sets because of Allah's Saying: “Then complete the fast until the nightfall.” [Surat Al Baqarah: 187]. Allah made the end of his fast to the nightfall. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “When you see night falling from this side, the fasting person should break his fast." [Reported by Al Bukhari and Muslim]. So, it is incumbent upon any person in this situation to hold the fast until the sun sets, or he may act according to the concession of breaking the fast during travel then he may make up for that day.
6 - Countries which their daytimes and nights are different, sometimes the night is long and sometimes it is short:
The most correct view in this issue is: fasting should be observed during daytime no matter how long it is. The same ruling is followed if the daytime is short because the reason of fasting depends mainly on the daytime and night. So, a person should act according to daytime and night in pursuant to Allah's Saying: “And eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Saum (fast) till the nightfall.” [Surat Al Baqarah: 187]. And according to the Prophet's saying: “When you see night falling from this side, the fasting person should break his fast." [Reported by Al Bukhari and Muslim].
In case the daytime continued for a long time, it is incumbent on a person to consider the period of daytime and night in the nearest country in which daytime is distinguished from the night.
And Allah knows the best. Praise be to Allah with Whose Grace good deeds are done.
This article was published at the Arabic site of International Islamic Fiqh Academy and we translated it into English to achieve the benefit.