In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of all mankind. And peace and blessings be upon the one who was sent as a mercy for mankind, our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and all his Companions.
Allah Almighty is All Wise and All Aware, therefore, He ordains for His Servants things which benefit them in this world as well as in the Hereafter. One of the greatest things that He ordained after ordaining Salah and Zakah was observing the fast of Ramadan. Allah Almighty says: “The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’ân, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fast) that month." [
By this Ayah, Allah explained the greatest wisdom of the fast which is obtaining piety and the fear of Allah. When the Prophet (peace be upon him) was asked about a woman who observed the fast, performed Salah, and gave in charity, but she used to harm her neighbors, he said: She shall be thrown into Hell Fire.” [Reported by Ahmad with authentic chain of narration]. Her final destination was Hell because the acts of worship did not achieve the benefit which is the fear Allah and piety. Fasting also includes great wisdoms and benefits; fasting is a mean to thank Allah for His Great Favors. The meaning of Fasting is to abstain from food, drink, and sexual intercourse which are great favors given to man. Abstaining, for a while, from approaching these favors makes them dear because when favors are taken, a person finds out how dear and precious those favors are, and accordingly he thanks Allah for them.
Fasting is a way to abstain from prohibited matters and by fasting a person can overcome desires. Fasting is a sign of mercy and kindness to the poor and defeat to Satan. By fasting a Muslim trains himself for fearing Allah, abstaining from worldly matters, and desiring for the reward of Allah. These are some benefits of fasting.
In modern times, new things were invented which may affect the fast; these things are divided into two sections:
The first is: New things that invalidate the fast.
The second is: Matters related to crescent sighting.