Introduction

All perfect praise be to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. And peace and blessings be upon the one who was sent as a Mercy to the worlds, our Prophet Muhammad, and upon all his family, companions, followers, and those on their guidance with excellence until the Day of Resurrection.

In this article we will, by the permission of Allaah The Almighty, review the Hadeeths of the practical rulings, starting from the chapter of Tahaarah (i.e. Purification) according to the approach of Al-Muhaditheen (i.e. scholars of Hadeeth) regarding that.

We will also review in every episode one Hadeeth or more, following the approach of analyzing Hadeeth by studying its Matn (i.e. the body of the Hadeeth) through presenting it in a form of main notes. In every note, we will touch upon an issue, or explain the meaning and the like, taking into account not to quote only the accepted Hadeeth. This does not mean that we will not mention the Da‘eef (i.e. weak) Hadeeth that scholars have cited; rather, we will mention it and explain its weakness.

Methodology, in this regard, dictates mentioning the different opinions of the scholars and explaining the preponderant opinions as much as possible and stating their evidences.

Chapter of Tahaarah (i.e. Purification)

First Hadeeth

Stipulating Tahaarah for Prayer

It was narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said: "Allaah does not accept prayer of anyone of you if he does Hadath till he performs the ablution (anew). In another narration a person from Hadaramout asked Abu Hurairah, may Allaah be pleased with him, saying: "What is 'Hadath'?" Abu Hurairah, may Allaah be pleased with him, replied, " 'Hadath' means the passing of wind from the anus."

It was also narrated that ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with them, said: “I heard the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, say: “No prayer is accepted without purification.”

There are many important points in this Hadeeth which is the main Hadeeth in the chapter of Purification. We will discuss them in detains in the following lines:

Firstly, the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him: “…does not accept…”, means getting reward. This was stated by the prominent scholar Ibn Al-Mulaqqin, may Allaah have mercy upon him. Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “Acceptance here is the fruit of performing the act of worship in a valid way, and fulfilling one’s obligations. As long as fulfilling its conditions makes it valid, which acceptance its fruit, he stated accepted in a rhetoric way. As for the acceptance expressed in a similar statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him: “Whoever goes to a fortuneteller his prayer will not be accepted.” it is actually real. That is because the action may be valid; however, acceptance may be rejected for any prevention. Therefore, some of our Salaf (i.e. righteous predecessors) used to say: “To have only one accepted prayer is really dearer to me than the whole world, this was expressed by Ibn ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with them, and then added, because Allaah The Almighty says (what means): {"Indeed, Allaah only accepts from the righteous [who fear Him].} [Quran 5: 27]

Secondly, the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him: “…if he does Hadath…, means if it occurs from him. It refers to invalidating Wudoo’ (i.e. ablution). Abu Hurairah, may Allaah be pleased with him, explained it with a form from it saying ('Hadath' means the passing of wind from the anus.").Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “They are like the word ugh (stated in Soorat Al-Israa’ which refers to the least way expressing anger and rejection) because they may occur during prayer more than anything else.”

Otherwise, the Hadeeth includes the major ritual impurity such as Janaabah, menstruation, and post-partum bleeding. Hadeeth also includes the minor ritual impurity such as what comes out from of the front or back passages, whether it is optional or not as it will be discussed in details, Allaah Willing.

Thirdly, the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him: “…till he performs the ablution (anew)”, prominent scholar Ibn Al-Mulaqqin, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “He, peace and blessing be upon him, negated acceptance until one meets the condition, which is Wudoo’, and what after fulfilling such condition contradicts what precedes it and thus it entails accepting prayer after ablution in an absolute way.” End quote

Actually, Wudoo’ is derived from an Arabic root that means beauty and cleanness.

Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “The statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him: “…till he performs the ablution (anew)”, meaning by water or what can work instead of it. It was reported with a strong Isnaad from Abu Tharr, may Allaah be pleased with him, in the Marfoo‘ (i.e. traceable) Hadeeth: “Dust is a sacred purification tool for Muslim.”

Accordingly, the lawgiver named Tayamum Wudoo’ because it works instead of it.” End quote

We come to know that the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, “…till he performs the ablution (anew)” means if one finds water already or he is to perform Tayammum  if he does not find water.

Fourthly, scholars deduced from this Hadeeth that the purification is one of the conditions of prayer and that prayer will not be accepted without fulfilling it. Imam An-Nawawi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “This Hadeeth is an evidence on the obligation of purification for prayer. Muslim scholars have unanimously agreed that purification is a condition for the validity of prayer.”

However, is Wudoo’ obligatory on everyone wants to offer prayer i.e. is everyone wants to offer prayer obliged to perform Wudoo’ or is it obligatory upon the one who has Hadath (i.e. ritual impurity) only?

The most preponderant opinion of the scholars is that it is not obligatory except only upon the one who has Hadath; however, renewing it for every prayer is something really recommended. Imam An-Nawawi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “Scholars of Fatwa (i.e. issuing Islamic verdicts) have agreed on that and no disagreement remained among them.”

Fifthly, scholars deduced an evidence from this Hadeeth on the invalidation of prayer by Hadath, whether it is minor or major and whether it gets out optionally or not. That is because the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, did not differentiate between one Hadath and another or one condition and another. Therefore, the prayer of the one who had Hadath becomes invalid and thus he has to perform ablution.

Sixthly, scholars have agreed on the prohibition of offering prayer without purification and whoever does this will be sinful and exposes himself to a severe punishment.

 Imam An-Nawawi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “Muslim scholars have unanimously agreed on the prohibition of prayer without purification of water and dust and there is no difference between the obligatory or supererogatory prayer, prostration of recitation and thanksgiving, and funeral prayer except what was reported from As-Sha‘bi and Ibn Jareer At-Tabari, may Allaah have mercy upon them, of this saying that offering funeral prayer without purification is something permissible. This is an incorrect approach and scholars have agreed on something contradicts it and that if one does that while he has Hadath and in an intentional way and without an excuse will be sinful.” End quote

Then added: “This is if the one who has ritual impurity offers prayer while having no excuse or necessity. But if one offers prayer while having an excuse because he does not find water or dust, the most correct opinion of the Muslim scholars is that he can offer prayer and is not obliged to make up for it for the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “…and do what I command you to the best of your ability and capacity.” End quote

Seventhly, this Hadeeth refers to the importance of purification in Islam, where it based accepting prayer, which is the second pillar of Islam, on the obligation of getting purified from the Hadath (i.e. major and minor ritual impurity). Moreover, it based sin on the condition if one offers prayer while he has no Hadath. As Islam prescribed the cleanness of the outward of the body, it obligates Muslim to purify his inward until one meets Allaah The Almighty with outward and inward purity. There are many Hadeeths explains the importance of purity and ablution and the great reward of them. It also was narrated that Abu Hurairah, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: "I heard the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, saying, "On the Day of Resurrection, my followers will be called "Al-Ghurr-ul-Muhajjalun" from the trace of ablution and whoever can increase the area of his radiance should do so (i.e. by performing ablution regularly)."      

Al-Ghurah is the whiteness of the face. The Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, points out that the believers will come on the Day of the Resurrection with white faces due to the traces of ablution.

In this regard, there is also the Hadeeth narrated on the authority of ‘Uthmaan, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “Whoever performs ablution in an excellent manner, then his sins will depart from his body even from beneath his fingernails.” 

In another narration reported by An-Nasaa’i, the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “If a man does Wudoo’ (ablution), and makes sure he does it correctly, and then does the prayer, he will be forgiven everything that he does between then and the time when he prays the next prayer.”

Grade: Al-Munthiri, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “Its Isnaad (i.e. chain of narrators) meets the conditions and criteria of the two Shaykhs (i.e. Al-Bukhaari and Muslim).

 

____________________________

 

(1)         Janaabah: The state of a person after having intercourse or ejaculating semen (regardless of the means) which requires complete ritual bodily washing. (Translator).

(2)         In Arabic, the word Tayammum literally means an 'aim' or 'purpose.' In Islamic Law, it refers to: 'Aiming for or seeking soil to wipe one's face and hands with the intention of purification and preparing oneself to pray, and so on." (Translator).

 

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