It was narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “If a dog drinks from the vessel of any one of you, let him wash it seven times.” In another wording reported by Imam Muslim: "…the first of which should be with dust (or soil).”

Muslim reported another narration on the authority of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mughaffal, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said: "If a dog licks the vessel of one of you, let him wash it seven times and rub it with soil the eighth time.” And in another wording reported by Muslim: "…let him throw it."

And in another narration reported by At-Tirmithi: "…, the first or the last of them with dust."

This is a great Hadeeth has important issues, related to the matter of purification of what the dog has touch and licked, which we will discuss in the following analysis:

Firstly, the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, 'If it licks'; meaning, if it drinks with the tip of his tongue. Some others said: "If it enters his tongue in the water and the like of all liquids, whether it drinks from it or not." It was also said: "If what is in the vessel is not something liquid, it is said: "It licks it and if the vessel is empty, then it is said, it laps it.

Ruling actually applies to all of them i.e. whether the vessel is empty or not and whether what is in it is liquid or not as it was stated by some Muslims scholars.

Secondly, the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, 'in the vessel of any one of you'; meaning, annexation is cancelled because the ruling of purifying impurity does not depend on owning the vessel. The same thing applies to his word 'let him wash it' does not entail that the one who washes it has to be the owner of the vessel.

Thirdly, the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, let him throw it; meaning, what is in the vessel.

Fourthly, majority of scholars view that such Hadeeth proves the impurity of the dog, whether the impurity of his mouth or the whole of its body. They said, the impurity of his mouth was proved by the orders of the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, of washing the vessels it has licked. That is because washing is only done because of Hadath (i.e. impurities on one’s body or clothing) or impurity and there is no Hadath here and thus it is impurity. Moreover, the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, ordered throwing water while throwing it is a form of wasting wealth. Then, if that water is pure, he will never order wasting it and thus this proves its impurity caused by the impurity of the mouth of the dog.

As for the impurity of its whole body, it is proved by drawing analogy to the impurity of its mouth, i.e. its mouth is the best place of it, and thus its whole body will be more impure. Also, if the impurity of its saliva (which is the sweat of his mouth) is proved while the sweat is a part secreted from the body, then all of its sweat and whole body is impure.

Fifthly, is that impurity related to a certain dog or all types of dogs? Imam Maalik, may Allaah have mercy upon him, view that it is special for the dog prohibited to be kept. As for the dog that is allowed to be kept such as the dog of hunting or guarding crops and livestock, this is not included in the ruling of prohibition. However, the preponderant opinion, Allaah Knows best, is what the majority of scholars have adopted that the ruling is general for all dogs. As for the dogs that the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, granted a concession for the people to keep, he made that necessity.

Sixthly, majority of scholars deduced from that Hadeeth that the vessel that the dog licks becomes impure as well as whatever in it whether it is water or the like. That is because the Messenger, peace and blessing be upon him, ordered washing the vessel seven times and the eight with dust and washing is done except from Hadath or impurity. Also, they substantiated their opinion with what Imam Muslim reported in the Marfoo‘ (traceable) Hadeeth: "The purification of the vessel of one of you, (if a dog licks it, is to wash it seven times, the first time with soil).” Purification is only done from impurity.

Seventhly, there are several narrations regarding the times of washing. Amongst such narrations is that: "… wash it seven times, the first time with soil" and also "… then wash it seven time and rub it with soil." Scholars have deduced from that what is obligatory is seven times for the Hadeeth is authentic and there are several narrations of it, unlike what some scholars have viewed that what is obligatory is only one time.

Eighthly, majority of scholars deduced from that Hadeeth that it is obligatory to wash the vessel one time for the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him: "…the first time with soil", and in another narration: "…and rub it with soil the eighth time”,  and in the third one "  one of which should be with soil."

However, what is the situation of that time of washing i.e. should the vessel be washed by dust at the first or last time?  The preponderant opinion, Allaah knows best, is that it is the first time. It will be washed the first time by dust and then seven times with water."

Ninthly, can the other detergents be sufficient instead of dust such as soap, potash, and the like?

Answer: Scholars have stated that such things are not sufficient. That is because there is a substance in the dog never be eliminated except with dust. Actually, Allaah The Almighty has the ultimate wisdom. Some people believe that what is meant is more cleaning and thus one of the detergent will be sufficient and this is a misunderstanding; rather, using dust is a must and there is nothing wrong with washing it after that with other detergents.

Tenthly, some scholars have stated that if the dog entered its hand or leg in the vessel, the ruling applies to it by drawing analogy to licking and because the whole body of the dog is impure and that the substance in his saliva exists in its sweat that spreads all over its body. Some of them stated that ruling is special for licking only; however, the first opinion puts one in the safe side. Allaah Knows best.

Eleventh, can analogy be drawn between dog and other animals? The correct opinion, Allaah Knows best, is what majority of scholars have viewed that no analogy can be drawn between dog and other animals for the text only spoke about it and although there are some other animals that are impure such as pig but no analogy can be drawn between them regarding what it has licked. 

              

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