Dear reader, in this episode and the others that follow it, we will discuss the Fiqh (Jurisprudence) of trade transaction and its different chapters and topics. That is because selling, buying and commercial transactions have some rulings in Islam that explains and illustrate them. Muslim individual in his daily life deals in selling and buying and thus he has to have the knowledge related to such transactions so that his deals and transactions may be sound and not commit the matters that Allaah The Almighty has prohibited. 

Generally, trade transactions and business have new styles that have to be reviewed by the religion and thus whatever is lawful we apply it, otherwise, we will have to keep away from it.

Before we delve into discussing the Hadeeths that are related to trade transaction, we, in this episode and those ones that follow it, will stop at some important points that should be pointed out before delving into the Fiqh of Hadeeths. That is because they have strong relationship with them and give us general perspective about the Islamic system of the commercial transactions in general.   

Firstly, Allaah, Exalted and Glorified be He, created us in this life and bestowed upon us great blessings, favors, graces that no one can count, no records can contain, no writer can imagine, no well-versed scholars or preacher can encompass. Amongst such favors and graces are creation, faith and adhering to it, guidance to the Sunnah, adopting the footsteps of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, health, sound body, security, wealth, immediate and postponed provisions and the like of other favors that cannot be enumerated nor imagined. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {And if you should count the favors of Allaah, you could not enumerate them. Indeed, Allaah is Forgiving and Merciful.} [Quran 16: 18] (1). 

All of such graces are out of the great generosity of Allaah The Almighty towards His believing worshipers. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): { And whatever you have of favor - it is from Allaah…} [Quran 16: 53].

Such great favors really entail us to be grateful to Allaah The Almighty and thank Him very much. This should be done by words and actions as well as by sound belief and behavior. That is because thanking Allaah The Almighty for His graces are the clear way to keep and sustain such graces and the most important factor of increasing and protecting them from decreasing. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {And [remember] when your Lord proclaimed, 'If you are grateful, I will surely increase you [in favor]; but if you deny, indeed, My punishment is severe.} [Quran 14: 7].  

Amongst the greatest and most important favors, the right of most graces cannot be fulfilled except via themselves, are the graces of wealth and provision.

Such grace on which the life of individuals, families and societies are based, Islam has made guidelines and basic principles and etiquette for it and thus the Muslim has to act upon them individually and Muslims as whole collectively.

Such basic principles and etiquette bear a complete and comprehensive legislation, starting from its perspective regarding wealth, then its resources and spending it in the lawful and prescribed ways.

Therefore, amongst the forms of thanking Allaah The Almighty for this wealth is to have complete faith that this wealth belongs to Allaah The Almighty, observe the right of Allaah The Almighty in it, earn it from its lawful ways, spend it in its lawful ways, use it in obeying and worshipping Allaah The Almighty, beware of spending it in its prohibited ways or using it in disobeying Allaah The Almighty.

There is absolutely no doubt that by thanking Allaah The Almighty for money, it increases and is multiplied; otherwise, money will decrease and perish. By denying favors and graces, the afflictions occur and Allaah The Almighty will replace richness with poverty, luxury with hardships and security with fear. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {And Allaah presents an example: a city which was safe and secure, its provision coming to it in abundance from every location, but it denied the favors of Allaah. So Allaah made it taste the envelopment of hunger and fear for what they had been doing.} [Quran 16: 112] 

When one thanks Allaah The Almighty for this favor, money will increase and be multiplied and more blessed. In this way, money will help one to do good deeds. If one gives charity, Allaah The Almighty will accept it from him, if one spends it in good ways, He, the Most Exalted, will bestow blessings on it and if one left it to his heirs, he will be highly rewarded.

This money has actually some basic principles, guidelines, and etiquette on which the Islamic system is based in it. It is obligatory upon Muslim individual to learn what can help him to fulfill the rulings of his religion. Religious knowledge is really the way to have a sound and complete worship. It is the way of conducting lawful transactions. Actually, knowledge helps one to know how to do the acts of worship in the proper way that in harmony with his religion and guard him against violations, risks and prohibitions.

Texts of Quran and Sunnah call for the necessity of seeking the religious knowledge, point out its virtues, and praise its scholars. It is sufficient to know that Allaah The Almighty has started Quran with instruction for reading and seeking knowledge.

As knowledge benefits one during his life by guiding him to the sound approach in his actions, words and manners, it also benefits one after his death because it is one of the ongoing good deeds as the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, explained this in the sound Hadeeth: “When a man dies, all his good deeds come to an end except three: ongoing charity, beneficial knowledge or a righteous son who will pray for him.”

 There is absolutely no doubt that Muslim individual needs religious knowledge so that he may do his financial and commercial transactions such as learning the rulings of trade transactions, types of prohibited trade transactions and all what is related to them. Imam At-Tirmithi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, reported with his Isnaad (i.e. chain of transmission) that ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: “No one should trade in our market except who has religious knowledge related to trade transaction.” [At-Tirmithi deemed it Hasan (good) Hadeeth].        




1) Soorat An-Nahl, Ayah (verse): 122.



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