It was reported from Ibn ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with them, that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, was asked about what the clothes the Muhrim (One in the state of Ihraam) may wear. He, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “The Muhrim should not wear shirts, trousers, burnouses or khufoof (leather socks), except for one who cannot find sandals, in which case he may wear khufoof but he should cut them (so that they come) lower than the ankles. And do not wear any clothes that have been dyed with saffron or wars.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaari and Muslim, wording for Muslim]
In another wording reported by Al-Bukhaari, the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “The woman in Ihraam should not cover her face with Niqaab (veil) or wear gloves.”
This Hadeeth serves a basic principle about the things that are forbidden in Ihraam of Hajj and ‘Umrah. We will have the following analyses regarding it:
Firstly, he (i.e. the narrator) said: "He, peace and blessing be upon him, was asked about what the clothes that the Muhrim may wear…"
Muhrim is the one who assumes Ihraam for Hajj and ‘Umrah and starting doing their rituals and abided by their conditions such as taking off Makheet (i.e. tight-fitting clothes) and keeping away from the things that Islam prevented Muhrim to do.
Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: (Muhrim means the one who assumes the intention of performing Hajj, ‘Umrah and Qarna i.e. doing both Hajj and ‘Umrah).
Scholars have said: Ihraam is an Arabic word means the intention of starting a state of prohibition.
In Sharee‘ah terminology, Ihraam is the intention to start performing the rituals of Hajj or ‘Umrah.
As for his statement 'should not wear shirts, trousers', Al-Haafith said: The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, was asked about what may be worn in Ihraam, he, peace and blessing be upon him, answered with what must not be worn and thus his answer will indicate all what is permissible. He, peace and blessing be upon him, adopted that way of answering the question because it is more brief and limited.
Qamees: It is the shirt that has sleeves.
‘Amaa'im: It is the turban which is a head covering for a man which is wrapped around the top of the head many times.
Sirwaaylaat: The plural of Sirwaal which is the trouser that covers the lower part of the body from the waist to the feet.
Burnouses: One-piece long hooded cloak.
khufoof: It is the plural of Khuff which is worn in one's legs and made of leather.
Saffron: It is the well-known dye. It is a bulbous plant, having a yellowish-orange coloring
Wars: A yellow plant with which clothes are dyed. It has a pleasant smell. It is much planted in Yemen.
Niqaab (veil): A piece of fine material worn to conceal the face.
Gloves: What woman wears in her hand. It covers her fingers and palms of the hand. It is for the hand like the Khuff for the leg.
Secondly, Ibn Daqeeq Al-‘Eid, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "They have agreed upon the prohibition of wearing all what is stated in the Hadeeth. Scholars of juristic analogy also included all they see like turbans and burnouses that extended to include all what covers head whether it is sewn to fit the body or the like. Turban may refer to all what covers head other than sewn cloth while burnouses may refer to all what covers head of sewn clothes, shirt refers to the prohibition of wearing clothes sewn to fit the body such as trousers because it surrounds waist." End quote with slight modification.
Thirdly, some things that are prohibited to be worn in Ihram were stated in the Hadeeth such as:
- Muhrim should not wear shirts for the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said: "The Muhrim should not wear shirts…" Jurists have established a basic rule according to this Hadeeth which is: 'Muhrim should not wear Makheet that is tailored to fit that surround the body.
Ibn Al-Munthir, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "Muslim scholars have agreed that the Muhrim is prevented to wear shirts, turbans, trousers, leather socks and burnouses."
Fourthly, The Hadeeth indicates that whoever does not find Izaar (i.e. lower garment or waist wrapper) can wear trousers. Ibn Qudaamah, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "We do not know any disagreement among scholars that the Muhrim can wear trousers if he does not find Izaar and Khuff if he does not find sandals."
Should one pay Fidyah if he wears such things? Ibn Qudaamah, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "It (i.e. this Hadeeth) is explicit in allowing it and clear in waiving Fidyah. He, peace and blessing be upon him, ordered wearing it and did not mention any Fidyah to be paid and because it is only to be worn when there is necessary and thus no Fidyah will be obligatory such as wearing cut leather socks." End quote
Fifthly, it was stated in the Hadeeth that amongst the things that are prohibited in Ihraam is covering the head for the man. This is Hadeeth is supported by another Hadeeth in which one of the companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, died as a result of his animal kicking him whilst in the state of Ihraam (for either Hajj or ‘Umrah), the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said: "…and do not cover his head, because he will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection uttering the Talbiyah.”
What one is prohibited to cover his head with is all that sticks to the head such as turban, cap, Ghutrah (i.e. head gear), and the like. As for what does not stick to the head, it is not prohibited such as car, tent and the like. That is because the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, was shaded while he was assuming Ihraam on the Day of ‘Arafah.
Sixthly, amongst the prohibited matters in Ihraam is wearing perfume for the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said: "…And do not wear any clothes that have been dyed with saffron or wars.”
Ibn Qudaamah, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "Muslim scholars have agreed that the Muhrim is prohibited to use perfume."
Also, the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said about the companion, may Allaah be pleased with him, who died as a result of his animal kicking him whilst in the state of Ihraam (for either Hajj or ‘Umrah): "…and do not cover his head or perfume him…”
Seventhly, the narration reported by Al-Bukhaari, may Allaah have mercy upon him, pointed out that the woman is prevented to wear Niqaab and gloves during assuming Ihraam. That is because the Ihraam of the woman is in her face and thus it should not be covered unless there are strange men present. This is substantiated by what is narrated by ‘Aa’ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her: "The riders used to pass by us when we were in Ihraam with the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him. When they drew near, one of us would lower her Jilbaab from her head over her face, and when they had passed by we would uncover our faces."
Eighthly, scholars have pointed out that if the Muhrim violates such prohibited matters in Ihraam, he should pay Fidyah if he is assuming Ihraam for ‘Umrah. Muhrim has the choice regarding Fidyah to slaughter a sheep, feed six poor persons, or fast three days.
Allaah Knows best.
1) Fidyah refers to money or anything else given as compensation for some matter. Technically, Fidyat Al-Athaa (Fidyah of harm) means what a pilgrim offers to Allaah The Almighty as compensation for committing some restrictions of Ihraam, such as wearing Makheet (tight-fitting clothes), perfume or the like. (Translator).