It was narrated that Sahl ibn Sa‘d, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: "A lady came to the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, and said, "O Messenger of Allaah! I have come to you to offer myself to you." He, peace and blessing be upon him, raised his eyes and looked at her and then lowered his head. When the lady saw that he, peace and blessing be upon him, did not make any decision, she sat down. On that, a man from his companions got up and said. "O Messenger of Allaah! If you are not in need of this woman, then marry her to me." The Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said, "Do you have anything to offer her?" He replied. "No, by Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah!" The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said to him, "Go to your family and see if you can find something.' The man went and returned, saying, "No, by Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah! I have not found anything." The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said, "Try to find something, even if it is an iron ring.'' He went again and returned, saying, "No, by Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah, not even an iron ring, but I have this waist sheet of mine." The man had no upper garment, so he intended to give her, half his waist sheet. So, the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said, ''What would she do with your waist sheet? If you wear it, she will have nothing of it over her body, and if she wears it, you will have nothing over your body." So, that man sat for a long period and then got up, and the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, saw him going away, so he ordered somebody to call him. When he came, the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, asked him, "How much of the Quran do you know?" He replied, "I know such Surat and such Surat and such Surat," and went on counting it, The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, asked him, "Can you recite it by heart?" He replied, "Yes." The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said, "Go, I have married this lady to you for the amount of the Quran you know by heart." (1).

 

Amongst the lessons drawn from the above-mentioned Hadeeth(2):

1- It is permissible for the woman to offer herself to the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, as Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {And a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her; a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers.} [Quran 33: 50]

2- It is permissible for the one who seeks marriage from a woman to look attentively at her.

3- It is recommended for the woman to offer herself to the righteous man to marry her.

4- It is recommended for the one from whom one asked something to keep silent if he cannot do it for that person so that the questioner may understand that and not to make him ashamed, unless he does not understand except with explicit rejection and thus one can do that.

5- This Hadeeth implies that marriage should include Mahr (i.e. bridal money) for the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said to the companion: "Do you have anything to offer her?" Scholars have unanimously agreed that it is not permissible for anyone to marry any woman offered to him for marriage except with giving dower for her.

6- It is more appropriate for Mahr to be stated in the marriage contract because it will sever any dispute and more beneficial for the woman. If marriage contact is concluded without stating Mahr, then, according to the preponderant opinion of scholars, woman should have a dowry like that of her peers at consummating marriage. As for being beneficial for her, it confirms for her half of the stated dowry if she is divorced before consummating marriage.  

7- It is permissible for the dowry, according to the scholars of the early and latter generations, to be little or much of beneficial matters if spouses agreed on it, because an iron ring is very cheap thing.

8- It is permissible to have an iron ring. An-Nawawi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "Scholars of earlier generation held different opinions regarding that. That is reported by Al-Qaadhi. Our scholars have two opinions regarding disliking it while the most preponderant of them is that it is not disliked for the Hadeeth that forbids it is weak.

9- It is recommended to hasten about giving Mahr to the woman.

10-        It is permissible to take oath while no one seeks it from you nor is there any necessity for that. That is because the companion said: "No, by Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah, not even an iron ring." Some scholars said: "It is something disliked so long as there is no need for that and our dear companion needed that to affirm his words."

11-        The poor person is allowed to marry the woman who knew his conditions and accepted him.

12-        Islamic ruler should pay much attention to his people and guide them to all that can be beneficial and should also be kind to them. When the companion, may Allaah be pleased with him, offered his waist sheet to be the dowry for the woman, the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said to him: ''What would she do with your waist sheet? If you wear it, she will have nothing of it over her body, and if she wears it, you will have nothing over your body."

13-        It is permissible for the man to wear the garment of his woman if she accepts that or he thinks mostly that she accepts that i.e. what befits both spouses to wear.

14-        It is permissible to make dowry as teaching a part from the Noble Quran. In some other variant narrations of that Hadeeth, the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said to the companion: "Teach her a part from the Noble Quran."

15-        Islamic ruler is allowed to give in marriage the woman that has no guardian for the one whom he believes competent for her; however, it is necessary to get her consent first (i.e. if she refuses to marry that person then no one can force her).

16-        This Hadeeth indicates the permissibility of asking for the hand of a girl who has been engaged before but no agreement occurred, especially along with the refusal that has been observed from the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, to marry her.

17-        The statement of the companion, may Allaah be pleased with him, "If you are not in need of this woman, then marry her to me" indicates that he was greatly smart and well-mannered. 

18-        The one who asks for something should not insist on asking for it; however, should ask for it kindly and leniently. Actually, this applies to the seeker of the worldly life and religion from a scholar, beggar, and the seeker of knowledge.

19-        That Hadeeth refers to the case in which the companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, were leading a difficult life and having little money, in spite of that fact they were the most chaste, well-mannered and happiest in whole world.

 

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(1)         Reported by Muslim No. (4742).

 

(2)         Sharh An-Nawawi ala Muslim (9/212) and Fat-h Al-Baari by Ibn Hajar (9/182).

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