Migration of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him
Sheikh Mohammed bin Uthaymeen
Praise be to Allah, Who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, to proclaim it over all religion, and thanks to Him for giving us of His wide generosity and grace. And I bear witness that there is no God but Allah alone, with no partner or associate. He guided whom He guided out of His grace, and led astray whom He led astray by His wisdom and justice. And I bear witness that Mohammed is His servant and His Messenger, the chosen one over the children of Adam. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, his family, his companions and followers until the Day of Judgment.
In what is to follow:
In this the month; the month of Rabee’ Al-Awwal of the thirteenth year of the mission, the Prophet, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his family, arrived at Medina as a migrant from Makkah; the first city for revelation and most beloved to Allah and His Prophet. He got out of Makkah as a migrant with the permission of his Lord, after he had resided in Makkah for thirteen years; fulfilling the duties of Allah’s mission and inviting unto Allah on evidence clear. He got from most of the Qureish and their gentry nothing but rejection to his call, turning away from it, causing of grievous harm to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his family, and to those who believed in him. They even resorted to implementing the plan of cunning and deceit to kill the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his family, where their gentry gathered in the conference hall and debated what to do with the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, when they saw his companions migrating to Medina, and that he would certainly catch up with them and find help and support from the Ansar (the Supporters), who pledged allegiance to him to defend him as they would defend their sons and their wives, and then he will have dominion over the Qureish. Allah's arch enemy, Abu Jahl, said: I see that we should pick from each tribe a young enduring man, give each one a rigid sword. They would then proceed to Mohammed and strike him collectively, thus slaying him. His blood would be dispersed among the tribes. This way, the Banu Abd Manaf, meaning the clan of the Prophet, peace be upon him, would not be able to fight all of their own people. They would then accept compensation, which we would then give it to them. Allah is the Greatest! Allah is the Greatest! Thus plot the enemies of Allah to eliminate the Messenger of Allah and the law of Allah, and with such a level of cunning and deception. But, they plot and Allah plots, as Allah the Almighty and Majestic said: (Remember how the unbelievers plotted against you, to keep you in bonds, or slay you, or get you out of your home. They plot and plan, and Allah too plans; but the best of planners is Allah). To keep you in bonds: means to incarcerate you, or kill you or expel you out from Makkah. But Allah Almighty is the best of plotters. So, Allah informed His Prophet, peace be upon him, about what the polytheists wanted and permitted him to emigrate from Makkah, which is the most beloved of cities to him. But, he emigrated in order to establish the religion of Allah. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, had prepared beforehand to emigrate to Medina. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: Hold on! For I hope I am granted permission. So, Abu Bakr held back in order to accompany the Prophet, peace be upon him. Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, said: (While we were in the house of Abu Bakr, at the peak of the sun at mid-day, when the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, showed at the door wearing a veil. Abu Bakr said: may my father and mother be a sacrifice for him! By Allah, what brought him at this hour is but a serious matter. The Prophet, peace be upon him, entered the house and said to Abu Bakr: let those who are with you out! He said: O Messenger of Allah, they are merely your relatives, may my father and mother be your sacrifice! The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: I was given permission to leave off. Abu Bakr said: companionship it is, O Messenger of Allah? He said: Yes. Then Abu Bakr said: O Messenger of Allah! So, take one of these two camels of mine. The Prophet of Allah, peace be upon him, said: with a price, meaning: I will take it with a price). Then the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his family, left off with his companion Abu Bakr. They stayed in the cave of Thawr for three nights. Abdullah, the son of Abu Bakr, who was an intelligent and conscious young man, used to spend the night by their side. He used to set off towards the end of night to Makkah, to mix with the Qureish in the morning; he hears not of news about the Prophet, peace be upon him, and his companion but grasps, until he brings it to them at dusk. The Qureish started to search for the Prophet, peace be upon him, in every way and seek every possible means to apprehend the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family. They even put up a reward of one hundred camels to those who bring him and Abu Bakr in, or either of them. But, Allah the Almighty and Majestic, was with them, safeguarding them with His care and protecting them with His favour. Even that the Qureishites stand by the entrance of the cave, but do not see them. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said: I said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, while we were in the cave: if someone looked at his feet, he would have seen us. The Prophet, peace be upon him, then said: (Have no fear, for Allah is with. What do you think, O Abu Bakr, of two with whom the third is Allah). When the quest for them subsided a little, they came out of the cave after three nights, heading to Medina along the coastal route. They were followed by Suraqah bin Maalik Almadlafi on a mare. Abu Bakr turned and said: O Messenger of Allah, this is the search party catching up with us. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: have no fear, for Allah is with us. So, Suraqah approached them; and when he heard the recitation of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, the forelegs of his mare sunk in the ground to the extent that her belly touched the ground, which was firm, but Allah the Almighty does what He wills in His creation. Suraqah then dismounted and rebuffed her; she stood up. When she got her forelegs out, smoke-like fumes glowing in the sky rose up from the marks they left. Suraqah said: my heart was convinced that the ordinance of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, will prevail. So, I hailed them with safety. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and the one with him stood up. So, I mounted my mare, got to them, informed them about what people want to do with them and offered them provisions and goods. He said to the Prophet, peace be upon him: you will pass by my camels and sheep at such and such place; so take from them what you require. Te Prophet said: I have no need for that, and said: screen off our departure. Suraqah retreated, and whenever he met someone from the search party, he sent him away and said: you have been spared to cover this side. Glory be to Allah, and praise be to Him! There is no God but Allah and Allah is the Greatest! A man makes off on his mare, seeking the Prophet, peace be upon him, and his companion, to capture them and rejoice in handing them over to their enemies among the infidels, but he did not turn back until he reverted into a supporting helper and defender, offering them goods and provisions and whatever they needed of his camels and sheep, and defending them against the side to which he belonged. And so, brothers, whoever had Allah as his aim, Allah Almighty will not abandon him ever, and whoever was with Allah, Allah was with him (Allah is with those who restrain themselves, and those who do good). When the people of Medina, among the immigrants and supporters, heard of the exodus of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, to them, they got out every morning to an elevated ground overlooking the main route to Medina, waiting for the arrival of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, until the heat of the sun drives them off. When the day in which the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, was due to arrive, the sun rose up and the heat intensified, they returned to their homes. While a man from the Jews was observing from above one of the forts of Medina was scouring for his own purpose, he saw the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and his companions emerge out of the hazy mirage. He could not help but hail as loud as his could: "O Assembly of Arabs! Here comes your prestige; meaning your fortune and glory, which you have been expecting. The Muslims rushed to meet the Messenger of Allah, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his family, brandishing their weapons in respect and honour of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and in a show of willingness to strive and defend him, may Allah be pleased with them. They welcomed him, peace be upon him,
at the exposed area of Al-Harrah. He led them to the right and dismounted in the hospice of Banu Amr bin Awf at Quba, where he stayed for a few nights and lead the foundations for the mosque; the mosque of Quba. He then left for Medina in the company of people, while others met him in the alleyways. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said: people turned up, when we arrived at Medina, in the streets and on roof tops, and young boys and servants uttering: Allah is the Greatest! The Messenger of Allah has arrived. Allah is the greatest! Mohammed has come. Anas bin Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, said: (I was running amongst boys, while I was then a boy, and the people saying: Mohammed has come! Mohammed has come). Thus were the people reiterating these words out of joy for the arrival of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, who is the most beloved of people to them. What a coming! It filled the hearts with joy and gladness, and filled the horizons with joy and light. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, arrived in Medina and every tribe from the supporters was contesting against its rival for the reins of his camel, to make him dismount. All were saying: At our place, O Messenger of Allah! (We are greater) in numbers, equipment and strength. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: leave her, for she is under instruction. I will surely dismount where Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, wanted me to. When she finally reached with him the location of his mosque, she adopted the sitting position. As soon as the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, dismounted from her, she sprung up. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, had released her reins. She walked not far and then turned back and returned back to her first place and came down. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, then said: (this will be, by the will of Allah the house). The place belonged to two orphan boys. He called them up and offered to buy it from them and take it as a mosque. They said: we rather make a gift of it to you, O Messenger of Allah. He declined to accept it from them as a gift, and bought it from them. He said, peace be upon him: which of the homes is closer to us? Abu Ayoub replied: Mine, O Messenger of Allah; this is my home and that is my door. He said: go forth and manage a slumbering retreat for the siesta for us, and so he did then came back and said: let us go with the blessing of Allah. Then came Abdullah bin Salam, who was one of the Jewish priests, i:e: one of their scholars, and said: I testify that you are the Messenger of Allah, and that you came with truth. The Jews know that I am their lord and the son of their lord, their most learned and son of their most learned, so call them and ask them about me before they know that I embraced Islam; for if they knew that I reverted to Islam, they would say about me that which is not in me. The Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, sent for the Jews. They came to the Prophet, peace be upon him. He said: (O assembly of Jews, wow to you! Fear Allah, for I swear by Allah, than whom there is no other god! You know that I am truly the Messenger of Allah and that I have come to you with truth. They said: we do not know that. He said: what is the status of Abdullah bin Salam among you? They said: he is our lord and the son of our lord, and our most learned and son of our most learned. He said: how would you see him if he embraced Islam? They said: Allah forbids! He would not do it! He repeated his question to them, and they replied with the same. Abdullah bin Salam, may Allah be pleased with him, had gone into hiding to see what they say. The Prophet, peace be upon him, then said: O bin Salam, show yourself to them. He showed up and said: "O assembly of Jews, fear Allah, for by Allah, than whom there is no other god! You know that he is the Messenger of Allah and has come with the truth. They told him: you lied! The Prophet, peace be upon him, sent them out. Abdullah said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not I inform you O Messenger of Allah, that the Jews are a people of slander, akin to treachery, lies and immorality? This, O Muslims, is the migration of the Prophet of Allah, peace be upon him. He got out of his city, which is the most beloved of cities to Allah and most beloved city to the Messenger of Allah.
He left Makkah to take up residence in Medina and reform the servants of Allah therein. Among his reforms and concerns, the establishment of mosques before homes. He built, peace be upon him, his mosque prior to building the houses of his family; may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, his family, his companions and those who followed them in truth to the Day of Judgement. So, fear Allah, O servants of Allah, and take from this migration a moral lesson, and remain firm on your religion and stick to it, and the end is best for the righteous. May Allah bless me and you in the Glorious Quran, and benefit me and you from what is therein of verses and message of wisdom. I say this and ask Allah for forgiveness for me and you from every sin, so seek His forgiveness; He is Oft-Forgiving, Oft- Merciful.
The second Sermon
Praise is due to Allah for His goodness, and thanks are due to Him for granting His success and favours. I testify that there is no god but Allah alone with no partner in His divinity, Lordship and authority, and I testify that Mohammed is His servant and Messenger, whom Allah endorsed with His evidence, may blessings of Allah be upon him, his family, his companions, his followers and his Aids, and bestow upon them much peace.
In what is to follow:
O people! The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: (do not envy one another); meaning: let not some of you envy some others. Envy is that the person hates the blessings that Allah bestows on other than him, and envy is a blameworthy comportment, which consumes good deeds as the fire consumes firewood. Envy is a blameworthy comportment in which the envier is likened to the envious Jews; for it is the Jews who envy people for what Allah bestowed of His bounty upon them. Envy is a blameworthy comportment involving objection to Allah in His will and decree, for the one who favours this person with His bounty is Allah, the Almighty and Majestic. If a person envied him, it is as if he objects to Allah’s decree. Envy is a blameworthy behaviour because it burns the heart of the envier; every blessing Allah bestows upon one of His servants, the heart of the envier is consumed with pain, grief and sadness. Envy is a vilified comportment, for it is a means for a person to seek to assault the envied, in order to deny him of the favours of Allah, owner of might and majesty. Envy is a blameworthy comportment because it preoccupies the person from worship Allah the Almighty, so that the person is always preoccupied with the conditions of people, by which Allah favours them with. You find him always in a state of thinking, turning away from the remembrance of Allah the Almighty. Allah said: (do not obey any whose heart We have permitted to neglect the remembrance of Us, one who follows his own desires, whose case has gone beyond all bounds). That is why you do not find anybody more at loss of time than the one whose heart is heedless from remembrance of Allah the Almighty. His case is gone beyond all bounds, and at a loss to him. Envy is from the vilified attitudes, which is not from the attitudes of the Muslims, O Muslims. Every one of you is proud to be a Muslim; and if so, then let him take pride in conforming to the attitudes of Muslims. Every one of you hates to be told he is like the Jews, and if so, then let him keep away from envy, for it is pure evil; may Allah accord me and you refuge from envy and aggression on our Muslim brothers. If you see Allah's grace on a person, Allah the Almighty has opened for you a great source, in which there is good. He, Exalted in Majesty, said: (And in no wise covet those things in which Allah has bestowed His gifts more freely on some of you than on others: To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn: But ask Allah of His bounty. For Allah has full knowledge of all things). When you see that Allah has bestowed grace on others than yourself, which you consider as a favour and a source of envy, ask Allah of His grace to bless you with bounties like it, for Allah is the Lord of the highest bounty. Brothers, the best of speech is the book of Allah and the best of guidance is that of Mohammed, peace be upon him. I ask Allah the Almighty to provide me and you with sticking to it, and suffer us to die as such; He has power over all things. The best guidance is the guidance of Mohammed, peace be upon him, and the worst of things are those novelties, and every newfangled matter in the religion of Allah is an innovation; everything that a person invents with the aim of coming closer to Allah, and which Allah the Almighty had not decreed, is a heresy. Thus said our Prophet Mohammed, peace be upon him, and every innovation is misguidance and every misguidance in the Hell fire. So, you are required, brethren, to gather around the religion of Allah and do not show vanity towards those who perished, for those who are doomed destroy only themselves. Concur and do not be parted, help one another in righteousness and piety. If one of you sees that his brethren had neglected a duty, let him advise him; and if he sees him engaging in a sin, then let him admonish him, for the believer is to another believer like a building whose different parts mutually enforce each other. Allah the Almighty says: (By the Token of Time (through the ages) (1). Verily Man is in loss (2). Except such as have Faith, and do righteous deeds, and (join together) in the mutual teaching of Truth, and of Patience and Constancy (3).) Imam Ash-Shaafi’i, may Allah have mercy on him, said: If Allah has revealed not to His servant a Surah except this one, it would have been sufficient for them; he means in terms of incitement to belief, righteous deeds, joining in mutual teaching of truth and of patience. O Muslims! Do more often send blessings and peace upon your Prophet! This way, your faith will increase and your good deeds will be abound, and you fulfil a little of the rights of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, over you, and you come closer to your Lord; and whoever did send more often blessings on the Prophet, peace be upon him, his worries are obviated and his sin forgiven. Do more often send blessings and peace upon your Prophet, Allah will thus magnify for you a reward. Whoever sends his blessing on him once, Allah sends blessings on him tenfold. O Allah! Send your blessings and peace upon your servant and Messenger Mohammed. O Allah! Grant us his love and his following, both inwardly and outwardly. O Allah! Suffer us to die thereupon his religion. O Allah! Gather us in his party. O Allah! Give us a drink from his Cistern. O Allah! Allow us in his intercession. O Allah! Unite us with him in the gardens of bliss, with those on whom you bestowed blessings from among the prophets, the saints, the martyrs and the righteous. O Allah! Be pleased with his rightly guided successors; Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali: the best of followers of the messengers. O Allah! Be pleased with his wives, the mothers of the believers, with all of his companions and with those who follow them in sincerity until the Day of Judgement. O Allah! Gather us with them, O Lord of the worlds. O Allah! Set us with them in heaven, on couches facing one another, O Most Merciful! O Allah! Cherish Islam and the Muslims everywhere. O Allah! Whoever is an enemy to the Muslims, destroy him, O Lord of the worlds sooner rather than later; you are powerful over all things. O Allah! Destroy the Jews, the Christians, the infidels, the apostates and the hypocrites, O Lord of the worlds. O Allah! Make our faith sincere and make our Unitarianism pure and unadulterated. Protect us from heresies and idolatry, O Lord of the worlds. Servants of Allah, Allah enjoins justice and kindness and giving to kinsfolk, and forbids lewdness and abomination and wickedness. He admonishes you that you may recall, and fulfil the covenant of Allah when you do so, and break not your oaths after you have ascertained them, whence you have made Allah your surety; for Allah knows what you do. And remember Allah the Almighty, He will remember you, and thank Him for his bounties, He will give you more. Verily, the remembrance of Allah is greatest, and Allah knows what you make.