“Not equal among you are those who spent and fought before the Victory (Treaty of Hudaybiyah) [i.e. they are not equal to those who came after the Victory]. They are higher in degree than those who spent and fought (in Allâh's Cause) afterward. But to all, Allâh has promised the best reward. And Allâh is All-Aware of what you do.” [Sûrah Al-Hadîd: 10].
Concerning the distribution of war-booty, Allâh says:
“(And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor emigrants who were expelled from their homes and properties, seeking bounties from Allâh and looking to please Him, and helping Allâh and His Messenger. These are the truthful ones. * And (it is also) for those who before them, had homes (in Madînah) and then accepted the Faith (Islâm). They are the ones who love those who migrated to them, and they have no jealousy in their hearts for that which they (Muhâjirîn) have been given (of booty from Banu Nâdir). Instead, they give them preference over themselves even though they had more of a need for it than them. And whoever guards himself from his own miserliness, then these will be the successful. * And those who come after them say: ‘Our Lord! Forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in Faith. And put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord, You are indeed full of kindness, most Merciful.’ ” [Sûrah Al-Hashr: 8-10].
The first of these three ayât from Surat Al-Hashr is in reference to the Muhâjirîn (the Sahâbah who migrated from Makkah to Madînah). The second ayah refers to the Ansâr (the Sahâbah who resided in Madînah who helped and took in the Muhâjirîn). The third ayah refers to those who will come after the Muhâjirîn and the Ansâr, who seek Allâh's forgiveness for them and ask Him not to put hatred in their hearts for them. There is nothing beyond these three groups except for one who deserts (them) and falls into one of the traps of the Devil. This is why 'A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) told 'Urwah Ibn Az-Zubair concerning the condition of some of those who deserted and were forsaken: “They were commanded to seek forgiveness for the Companions of Allâh's Messenger (peace and blessing be upon him), but they (instead) reviled them.”
Imâm Muslim transmitted this report in the last part of his Sahîh. An-Nawawî said in his explanation of it, after mentioning the ayah of Sûrah Al-Hashr:
“Imâm Mâlik used this as proof for his ruling that the one who reviles the Sahâbah has no right to the war-booty. This is because Allâh only made it for those who seek forgiveness for them from amongst those who come after them.”
Ibn Kathîr said in his tafsîr of this ayah:
“How great is the ruling that Imâm Mâlik derived from this ayah, in that the Râfidî - the one who reviles the Companions - has no portion of the wealth from the war-booty due to his lack of characterizing himself with the attributes of those whom Allâh has praised in His saying:
‘Our Lord! Forgive us and our brothers who have preceded us in Faith. And put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord, You are indeed full of kindness, most Merciful.’ ”