The Hadith is still connected with Adhkar that are recited after Salah. It was authentically reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) some types of Adhkar which are permissible for a Muslim to say upon lifting from Ruku` (bowing down). In general, these Adhkar are praising and glorification to Allah (Glory be to Him).
It was reported in Sahih Al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "When the Imam says: Sami`a Allahu liman Hamidah [Allah hears those who invoke Him], say then: Rabbana wa Lakal-Hamd [O Lord, You have all praise], for whose saying corresponds the saying of the angles, his past sins shall be forgiven." (1) Sahih Al Bukhari, No. 795, 796, and Sahih Muslim No. 409.
In another wordings: "Allahumma Rabbana walakal Hamd" [O Lord, and to You belong all praise]” because it was mentioned with “and” in Sahih Al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. Moreover, the word "and" creates two sentences with separate meanings because the world "Rabbana" contains the meaning of You are the Lord, the King, and the Ever-Living who possesses all things and to Him all things return. So, the Prophet (peace be upon him) added to it "walakal Hamd" and that means: He has the dominion and the praise. (2) The book of Salah (p. 177) with slight paraphrasing.
It was reported in Sahih Muslim from the Hadith of `Ali ibn Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) that when the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) lifted from Ruku` (bowing down), he used to say: "O Allah! our Lord! To You be the praise which would fill the heavens and the earth, and that which will please You besides them." (3) Sahih Muslim No. 477.
As for his saying: "which would fill the heavens" i.e., fill the heavens with praise that fills the higher and the lower world and the space between them; praise by this description fills all creation.
As for his saying: "and that which will please You besides them." i.e., praise that fills anything that is created by the Lord (Glory be to Him) thereafter and includes anything else He wills. Accordingly, this praise fills every existing thing and things that will be created thereafter. (1) See: The book os Salah of Ibn Al Qayyim (p. 177).
It was reported in Sahih Muslim from the Hadith of Abu Sa`id Al Khudry (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: "When the Messenger of Allah (may peace and blessings be upon him) raised his head after bowing, he said:"Rabbana Lakal Hamd Mil'us-Samawat wal Ard." [O Allah! our Lord, to You be the praise that would fill all the heavens and the earth, "Wamil'u ma Shi'ta min shay'in ba`d"and all that it pleases You besides (them)."Ahluth-thana'i Wal majd." O Possessor of praise and majesty, "Ahaqqu ma qala Al `Abd." [the truest thing a servant has said (of You)], "Wakullna laka `Abd." [and we are all Your Servants]. "Allahumma la mani`a lima A`tayt." [O Allah, none can prevent what You have willed to bestow]."Wala Mu`tiya lima mana`t, wala Yanfa`u Dhal-Jaddi minkal-Jadd." And nobody can give what You hold back. Hard efforts by anyone for anything cannot benefit one against Your Will." (2) Sahih Muslim No. 771.
As for his saying: "Ahluthana'i wal Majd." i.e., You are worthy of every praise and glory for Your Great Characteristics, perfection, and plentiful favors.
As for his saying: "Ahaqqu ma qala Al `Abd." i.e., this praise and glory are the truest thing a servant has said.
As for his saying: "Wakullna laka `Abd." i.e., it includes a recognition of servitude to Allah because all the people are subjected to Allah, for He is their Lord and Creator —there is no Lord nor Creator but He.
As for his saying: "la mani`a lima A`tayt, Wala Mu`tiya lima mana`t," it includes a recognition of the singularity of Allah in giving and withholding and in raising and lowering, for no associate is with Him in worship. So, anything Allah ordains on His Servants whether a favor or affliction, no one can stop it as Allah says: "And if Allah should touch you with adversity, there is no remover of it except Him; and if He intends for you good, then there is no repeller of His bounty. He causes it to reach whom He wills of His servants. And He is the Forgiving, the Merciful." (1) Surat Yunus: 107.
He also says: "Whatever of mercy (i.e., of good), Allâh may grant to mankind, none can withhold it; and whatever He may withhold, none can grant it thereafter. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise." (2) Surat Fatir: 2.
He (Glory be to Him) is singled out with giving and withholding, and when He gives, no one can withhold His Favor and when He withholds, no one can give.
As for his saying: "wala Yanfa`u Dhal-Jaddi minkal-Jadd." And nobody can give what You hold back." i.e., nothing avails at Him, none is safe from His Torment, and none can be honored because of his status or honor, but only drawing nearer to Him with obedience and preferring His Pleasure will make them safe. (3) See: The book of Salah of Ibn Al Qayyim, p. 177-187.
Al Bukhari reported in his Sahih from Rifa`ah ibn Rafi` Az-Zuraqy (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said: "One day we were praying behind the Prophet (peace be upon him). When he raised his head from bowing, he said, "Sami` a-l-lahu liman hamidah." A man behind him said, "Rabbana walaka-l hamd hamdan Kathiran taiyiban mubarakan fihi" (O our Lord! All the praises are for You, many good and blessed praises). When the Prophet (peace be upon him) completed the prayer, he asked, "Who has said these words?" The man replied, "I" The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "I saw over thirty angels competing to write it first." (1) Sahih Al Bukhari No. 799.
As for his saying: "hamdan Kathiran taiyiban mubarakan fihi." i.e., I praise Him frequently.
As for his saying: "I saw over thirty angels competing to write it first." It was said that they were from thirty three to thirty nine angels who were competing to write it first in the book of good deeds.
One of the benefits taken from the Hadith is: A Ma'mum (one who is led in Salah) should hasten to say: "Rabbana walaka Al Hamd" upon hearing the imam saying it because the letter "Fa" in Arabic denotes close succession.
Another benefit: The much number of angels who write down people's actions, and the love of those angels to goodness and its doers, and their hastiness to writing down those good deeds.
The Hadith contains a characteristic that was given to the Prophet (peace be upon him) which is seeing angels, as he saw them, whereas the Companions did not.
Were those angels who hastened to write down these words from the angels who protect people or not? The people of knowledge have differed into two views, however the most correct is: They are different from the angels who protect people. The proof to this is the Hadith of Sahih Al Bukhari that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Allah has some angels who look for those who celebrate the Praises of Allah on the roads and paths. And when they find some people celebrating the Praises of Allah..."In another narration: "Unlike the angels who write down people's actions." (1) Sahih Al Bukhari No. 6408 and Al Musnad 2/251. scholars hold it as a proof that some righteous actions may be written by other than the preserving angels. Allah knows the best.