The First: The characteristic of (Rabbaniyyah) divinity.
Ar-Rabbaniyyah refers to something that came from Ar-Rabb or the Lord.(1)
Ar-Rabb in Arabic has many meanings including; the King, the owner, the organizer, the master, the educator, the sustainer and the granter. The word Ar-Rabb whenever is used without annexation it always denotes Allah (Glory be to Him), but when it is used for some person it must be annexed with some thing, like; the lord of so and so. (2) This word has been explained in detail in some authentic dictionaries. (3)
In addition to that, the word Ar-Rabbaniyyah here means that the source of Islamic Shari`ah including Islamic moral values is the Lord (Glory be to Him). In fact, the basis of the Islamic moral values is the divine revelation that contains the orders and prohibitions of Allah.
Allah the Almighty says in the Glorious Qur'an: “And thus We have revealed to you an inspiration of Our command.” [Ash-Shuraa: 52] And He (Glory be to Him) says: “Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad!], as We revealed to Noah and the prophets after him.” [An-Nisa’: 163], And Allah (Glory be to Him) says: “Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination, it is not but a revelation revealed." [An-Najm: 4]
That is why, Islamic Shari`ah is an inclusive and complete divine law that contains mercy, guidance and healing, as Allah (Glory be to Him) says: “O mankind, there has to come to you instruction from your Lord and healing for what is in the breasts and guidance and mercy for the believers.” [Yunus: 57]. There is no surprise in this matter, because, it is from Allah (Glory be to Him) the Omniscient Who knows everything about His creation. As Allah (Glory be to Him) says: “Does He who created not know, while He is the Subtle, the Acquainted?” [Al-Mulk: 14].
However, there is a question; how divinity can be the characteristic of the values of Islam while the moral values that came in other heavenly religions, like the Shari`ah of Torah and the Bible that are also from Allah the Almighty? What is the reason of this specification? Why Islamic moral values have been described with this characteristic?
In fact, there is no difference between them and the moral values of Islam as whole, because, they are basically through the revelation from Allah (Glory be to Him). Therefore, they are same in this aspect and there is no need of assignment in this characteristic.
Even though, there is difference between the laws of the heavenly religions, as Allah (Glory be to Him) said: “To each of you We prescribed a law and a method.” [Al-Ma’idah: 48]. However, there is coincidence between these religions in calling to monotheism, basic concept of worship, morality and good ethics. (4) As Allah (Glory be to Him) said: “And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, "There is no deity except Me, so worship Me."” [Al-Anbiya’: 25] And He (Glory be to Him) said: “O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous.” [Al-Baqarah: 183] Furthermore, Allah (Glory be to Him) said: “He has certainly succeeded who purifies himself. And mentions the name of his Lord and prays. But you prefer the worldly life, while the Hereafter is better and more enduring. Indeed, this is in the former scriptures; the scriptures of Abraham and Moses. [At-Tur: 14-19].
On the other hand, this characteristic is missing today in all systems and human ordinances, as well as in the previous divine legislations.
As for the human regulations and ordinances, the matter is evident, because, they are human products, whilst the legislation of the divine religions that preceded Islam has been distorted and were subjected to change, addition and subtraction, as was stated by Allah (Glory be to Him) in the Glorious Qur'an in many verses, such as the verse: “O People of the Scripture, there has come to you Our Messenger making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Scripture and overlooking much.” [Al-Ma’idah:15].
And Allah (Glory be to Him) said: “And indeed, there is among them a party who alter the Scripture with their tongues so you may think it is from the Scripture, but it is not from the Scripture. And they say: "This is from Allah." but it is not from Allah. And they speak untruth about Allah while they know.” [A’ali-`Imran: 78] In addition to tha, He (Glory be to Him) said: “They distort words from their [proper] usages and have forgotten a portion of that of which they were reminded.” [Al-Ma’idah: 13].
Thus, it has become important to talk about the characteristic of divinity in the context of our talk about Islamic moral values that was lost by other divine religions, or that is missing in other manmade moral systems. However, this resulted in defect in the process of reforming the people and leading the individual and society to the betterment.
(1) See: Muhammad An-Najjar, Dhiya As-Salik Ila Awdhah Al-Masalik, (3/48) printed in the year 1401A.H. and Ahmad Al-Hashimi,(Al-Qawa`id Al-Asasiyyah Lil-Lughat Al-`Arabiyyah, (the Basic Rules of the Arabic Language) p.307, Dar Al-Kutub Al-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut.
(2) Ibn Al-Athir, An-Nihayah Fi Gharib Al-Hadith, (2/179) and Ibn Manzur, Lisan Al-`Arab (1/399).
(3) Ibn Faris, Mu`ajam Maqayis Al-Lughah, (2/381-383).
(4) Manna`a Al-Qattan, At-Tashri`a Wal-Fiqh Fil-Islam Tarikhan Wa Manhajan, pp. 12-14, Maktabah Wahbah, 1st edition, 1396 A. H. and see: Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmu`a Al-Fatwa, (20/ 6).