Secondly: the Qur'an:
Meaning of the word ‘Qur’an’ in Arabic Language:
The word ‘Qur’an’ was derived from the root word Qara’a; its infinite form is Qira’ah and Qur’an that means to read. Allah (Glory be to Him) says:
“Indeed, upon Us is its collection [in your heart] and [to make possible] its recitation. So when We have recited it [through Gabriel], then follow its recitation.” (1)
In this verse, the word ‘Qur’anahu’ means reading it. The word ‘Qur’an’ is an infinite form like the Arabic word ‘Ghufran’ (to forgive). Afterwards, it became a proper name of the book which has been revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him).
Ibn Al-Athir (2) says in this regard: “Originally, the word Qara’a and Qur’an denote collecting some thing. The Glorious Qur’an was named ‘Qur’an’ because it includes stories, commands, prohibitions, promise and warning, and its verses and Surahs are combined with each other.”
Furthermore, it was said that the word Qur’an is an independent word that was not derived from any word. It is a proper name of the book of Allah. (3)
The word ‘Qur’an’ in terminology:
A group of scholars preferred not to burden themselves with the difficulty of defining the word through logical definitions that include accurate description, because, the word ‘Qur’an’ is one of the plain words that is understood easily by even illiterate people, let alone the learned ones.
However, some of the scholars have mentioned several introductory words that help to distinguish its meaning from others, and present a few characteristics of its denotation. It was said that Qur’an is the speech of Allah that was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) the recitation of which has been considered an act of worship. (4)
Significance of the Glorious Qur'an:
Qur’an is the basis of Islam and its first source. It is the source of its beliefs, acts of worship, teachings, etiquette and all affairs, while all other sources are dependent on the Qur’an and relying on it. Allah (Glory be to Him) honored this nation with this favor, and raised their status by it and elevated their grade through it. The Glorious Qur’an says in this context: “We have certainly sent down to you a Book in which is your mention. Then will you not reason?” (5)
Qur’an is the strong rope of Allah and His straight path. Whoever talks in its light is right and whoever judges with it achieves justice and whoever follows it he is rewarded, and whoever calls to it is guided to the straight path. Allah (Glory be to Him) says: “O People of the Scripture, there has come to you Our Messenger making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Scripture and overlooking much. There has come to you from Allah a light and a clear Book, by which Allah guides those who pursue His pleasure to the ways of peace and brings them out from darknesses into the light, by His permission, and guides them to a straight path. (6)
Allah the Almighty says in another verse: “Whoever follows My guidance will neither go astray [in the world] nor suffer [in the Hereafter]. And whoever turns away from My remembrance, indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind." (7)
Moreover, Allah (Glory be to Him) has enjoined on the believers to follow Qur’an, and to resort to it for judgment, as He (Glory be to Him) says: “[This is] a Book revealed to you, [O Muhammad] - so let there not be in your breast distress therefrom - that you may warn thereby and as a reminder to the believers. Follow, [O mankind], what has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow other than Him any allies. Little do you remember!” (8)
Also He (Glory be to Him) said: “Mankind was [of] one religion [before their deviation]; then Allah sent the prophets as bringers of good tidings and warners and sent down with them the Scripture in truth, to judge between the people concerning that in which they differed.” (9) And Allah the Almighty said: “And judge, [O Muhammad], between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations.” (10)
Furthermore, He (Glory be to Him) says: “And in anything over which you disagree - its ruling is [to be referred] to Allah.” (11)
Allah (Glory be to Him) has revealed the Qur’an as a guidance for the worlds and a law for all people, as Allah the Almighty says: “Blessed is He who sent down the Criterion upon His Servant that he may be to the worlds a warner.” (12)
In addition, He (Glory be to Him) says: “[This is] a Book which We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], that you might bring mankind out of darknesses into the light by permission of their Lord - to the path of the Exalted in Might, the Praiseworthy.” (13)
And He (Glory be to Him) says: “Say, [O Muhammad], "O mankind, indeed I am the Messenger of Allah to you all.” (14)
Therefore, the Glorious Qur’an was revealed fulfilling human needs and demands of human life in different times and different circumstances. It includes everything that brings goodness to the people and safeguards their interests, as the Glorious Qur’an has elucidated and said: “Indeed, this Qur'an guides to that which is most suitable and gives good tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a great reward.” (15)
As well as, Allah (Glory be to Him) promised to guard the Glorious Qur’an, as Allah the Almighty says: “Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur'an and indeed, We will be its guardian.” (16)
That is why, memorizers and copyists were appointed by Allah the Almighty, thus the Glorious Qur’an was transmitted by countless people and remained totally safe from any kind of addition, subtraction, distortion and change.
Now, people are in dire need to take guidance from its teachings, and to resorting to it for judgment, to get rid of the calamities of mankind, and to eliminate their dilemmas in order to enjoy security, stability and affluence.
(1) Al-Qiyamah75:17, 18.
(2) Al-Mubarak ibn Muhammad Ash-Shaibani, Al-Jazri, Abus-S`adat, a scholar and lexicologist, brother of both; Ibn Al-Athir the historian and Ibn Al-Athir the writer. He was born in 544 A.H. and died in 606 A.H. See: Ibn Al-Athir, Al-Kamil vol.10, p.350, Dar Al-Kutub Al-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, the 1st edition, year 1407 A.H. and Al-I`alam, vol. 5, p. 272.
(3) Ibn Manzur, Lisan Al-`Arab, vol. 1, p. 12 and Al-Firozabadi, Al-Qamus Al-Muhit, vol.1, p. 24.
(4) See: Al-A’amidi, Al-Ihkam Fi Usool Al-Ahkam, vol.1, p.128 and Al-Firozabadi, Al-Qamus Al-Muhit, vol.1, p. 24.
(5) Al-Anbiya’ 21: 10.
(6) Al-Ma’idah5:15, 16.
(7) Taha 20: 123,124.
(8) Al-A’araf 7: 2, 3.
(9) Al-Baqarah 2: 213.
(10) Al-Ma’idah 5: 49.
(11) Ash-Shura 42: 10.
(12) Al-Furqan 25: 1.
(13) Ibrahim14: 1.
(14) Al-A’araf 7: 158.
(15) Al-Isra’ 17: 9.
(16) Al-Hijr 15: 9.