Episode 67: Connection of Human Behavior to His Forehead (1-4)
Episode 67: Connection of Human Behavior to His Forehead (1-4)
The Hadith: “O Allah! I am your slave, son of your male and female slaves, my forelock is in your hand, your command over me is forever executed and your decree over me is just.”(*)
This Hadith is famous on the authority of Ibn Mas`ud, and was also narrated on the authority of Abu Musa. The word ‘Nasiyah’ (Forelock) has been mentioned in many narrations of the companions of the Prophet (may the peace the blessings of Allah be upon him) including: Abu Hurayrah in his two narrations, `Ali ibn Abi Talib, `A’ishah, `Abdullah ibn `Amr ibn Al `A’as, `Umar ibn Al Khattab, Buraydah ibn Husayb and Jabir (may Allah be pleased with them).
1 - The Hadith of Ibn Mas`ud has been recorded by Ibn Abi Shaybah (1), Ahmad (2), Abu Y`ala (3), Ibn Hibban (4), At-Tabarani (5), Al Hakim(6), and Al Bayhaqi (7). All of them have narrated it from Fudhayl ibn Marzuq, from Abu Salamah Al Juhani, from Qasim ibn `Abdur- Rahman from his father on the authority of `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud. The complete text of Hadith is as follows:
“There is no-one who is afflicted by distress and grief, and says: (O Allah, I am Your slave, son of Your slave, son of Your maidservant; my forelock is in Your hand, Your command over me is forever executed and Your decree over me is just. I ask You by every name belonging to You which You have named Yourself with, or revealed in Your Book, or You taught any of Your creation, or You have preserved in the knowledge of the Unseen with You, that You make the Qur’an the spring of my heart and the light of my chest, and a departure for my sorrow and a release for my anxiety),’ but Allah will take away his distress and grief, and replace it with joy.” He was asked: “O Messenger of Allah, should we remember this?” He said: “Of course; everyone who hears it should remember it.” [Reported by Ahmad].
Al Hakim said: "It is an authentic Hadith according to the conditions of Imam Muslim, if it is an Irsal (or omitting a mediator narrator) of `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Abdullah, on the authority of his father; as his direct hearing from his father is disputed."
Furthermore, Adh-Dhahabi said: "Abu Salamah is unknown and could not be identified who he is? And there is no narration of him in the six books of Hadith."
While Al Haythami said: "This Hadith was recorded by Ahmad, Abu Y`ala and Al Bazzar. The narrators of Ahmad and Abu Y`ala are authentic except Abu Salamah who was authenticated by Ibn Hibban." (8)
It is noteworthy that most of the critics have proved direct hearing of Abdur-Rahman ibn `Abdullah from his father. Some of those critics are: Ath-Thawri, Abu Hatim, Sharik, Al Bukhari and Ibn Ma`in (according to Mu`awiyah ibn Salih’s narration from him), but some of them have restricted his direct hearing from his father with a few Hadith not his all narrations. Ibn Al Madini said in this regard: “He met his father and heard only two Hadith from him: the Hadith about lizard and a Hadith about delaying the prayer."
In addition, Al `Ajali said: "It was said that he had heard from his father only one Hadith that says: ‘The one who makes permissible impermissible is like the one who makes impermissible permissible.’"
Moreover, Al Bukhari has narrated the story of Al Walid ibn `Uqbah who delayed a prayer when `Abdur- Rahman was with his father, he also mentioned through his chain of narration that `Abdur-Rahman said to his father when he was dying: “Advise me.” His father said: “Weep on your sin.”
Al Hafiz says: "His chain of transmission is good." (9) He further said: "Therefore, the numbers of those who confirmed his direct hearing from his father will be four, one of them is Mawquf and his narration from him is many as As-Sunan has mentioned fifteen and Al Musnad mentions seven excluding the previous fifteen. Most of the were narrated by the word ‘`An’ which denotes some weakness in the chain of narration and this type of narration is called ‘Tadlis’ that is to narrate something from his Sheikh without hearing it from his teacher directly. And Allah knows best."(10) End of quote.
Therefore, Al Hafiz has included him among the third category of Mudallisin. (The narrators who omit a mediator narrator and link the Hadith directly to their teachers, this type of omitting has been regarded a sort of weakness in the narrator). (11)
Though, this narration from his father has been narrated with the word ‘`An’ but I did not find any critic who described him with ‘Tadlis’ except Al Hafiz. While Abu Salamah Al Juhani was accused of unfamiliarity by Adh-Dhahabi as was mentioned above. His conclusion was followed by Al Husayni (12) and Al Hafiz. (13)
It is worth mentioning that Al Muzzi has pointed out to two persons of Juhani narrators among the narrators of Al Qasim: one of them is Abu Salamah Al Juhani and the other is: Musa Al Juhani. (14) Al Bukhari (15) And Ibn Hibban (16) have differentiated between them when they mentioned both narrators but Abu Salamah has not been named by them, while Abu Salamah was mentioned by Abu Ahmad Al Hakim in his book ‘Al Kuna’ who included him among the narrators whose names are unknown. (17)
Furthermore, Sheikh Ahmad Shakir has concluded that the narrator is Musa ibn `Abdullah or `Abdullah ibn `Abdur-Rahman Al Juhani, his conclusion is based on two reasons: the first: he was included in the rank of narrators of Al Qasim. The second: his nickname was (Abu Salamah). (18)
The conclusion of Sheikh Ahmad Shakir was supported by Sheikh Al Albani with third evidence, since Musa Al Juhani has narrated another narration from Al Qasim ibn `Abdur-Rahman. (19) Thus if each version is added to another the result would be that the narrator of Al Qasim is Musa Abu Salamah Al Juhani.
His opinion has been supported with two evidences:
A – There is no narrator who has the name ‘Musa Al Juhani’; except Musa ibn `Abdullah Al Juhani, whose nickname is Abu Salamah, an authentic narrator of Imam Muslim.(20)
B – The second evidence is the statement of Al Hakim who said: “It is authentic according to the conditions of Muslim ..." Al Albani said: "It seems that Al Hakim points out to this fact when he said:" It is authentic according to the conditions of Muslim ... " Al Hakim means that the narrators of this Hadith are like the narrators of Muslim according to his criteria. And this statement could not be true but if Abu Salmah Al Juhani is supposed that he is Musa ibn `Abdullah Al Juhani."(21) End of quote.
However, I have a fourth proof that verifies the view of both sheikhs: Ahmad Shakir and Al Albani; since Abu Ahmad Al Hakim commented on Abu Salamah Al Juhani and said: "His narration is famous amongst the inhabitants of Al Kufah." (22) End of quote.
It is noteworthy here that the narrator of this Hadith from Abu Salamah Al Juhani is Fudhayl ibn Marzuq from Al Kufah, as well as Musa ibn `Abdullah Al Juhani also belonged to Al Kufah, rather, all narrators of this chain are from Al Kufah. These four evidences- sharing the same Sheikh, coincidence of the nickname, his relation to Al Juhaynah and sharing the same country- are almost conclusive evidence that Abu Salamah Juhani is Musa ibn `Abdullah Al Juhani. And Allah knows best.
After discussion about Abu Salamah and `Abdur-Rahman, I returned to the Hadith then I found Sheikh Al Albani says: “I saw the Hadith was narrated by Muhammad ibn `Abdul Baqi Al Ansari in (Six Meetings [8/1]) via Imam Ahmad. He added that the central narrator of this Hadith is Al Hafiz Muhammad ibn Nasir Abul Fudhayl Al Baghdadi and this Hadith has been graded as good with a high rank of chain and its narrators are trustworthy.”(23) End of quote.
But its chain contain Fudhayl ibn Marzuq Al Kufi who was described by Al Hafiz with following description: (Honest, but forgets and was accused of Shi'ism). (24)
But this chain was supported with another chains of transmission; as Al Bazaar (25) and Ibn As-Sunni (26) have recorded this Hadith through two ways, from `Abdur-Rahman ibn Ishaq, on the authority of Al Qasim ibn `Abdur-Rahman, but Ibn As-Sunni did not mention the phrase (from his father). One of the two chains of Ibn As-Sunni to `Abdur-Rahman ibn Ishaq is authentic. `Abdur-Rahman ibn Ishaq is Abu Shaybah Al Wasti who has been graded as weak. (27)
It should be borne in mind that Al Qasim ibn `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud had not heard from his grandfather. (28)
Sheikh Al Albani added that Muhammad ibn Al Fadhal ibn Ghazwan Al Dhabbi has narrated it in Kitab Ad-Du`a (The Book of Prayer) (2/1-2) from `Abdur-Rahman ibn Ishaq and did not mention the word (from his father). (29)
In short, the Hadith -in my opinion- is good not full authentic as was concluded by Sheikh Al Albani. (30)
(*) Aspect of Miracles in Human Behavior and its Connection to the Forelock, (p. 3) a research by Dr. Yahya Nasir Khawaji.
(1) Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (10/253 Hadith No. 9367).
(2) Al Musnad, (1/391, 452).
(3) Musnad Abu Y`ala, (9/198, 199 Hadith No. 5297).
(4) Al Ihsan, (2/159, 160 Hadith No. 968).
(5) Al Mo`ajam Al Kabir,(10/209, 210 Hadith No. 10352) and Book of Ad-Du`a, (2/1279 Hadith No.1035).
(6) Al Mustadrak,(1/509).
(7) Al Asma’ Was-Sifat (The Names and Attributes), p (6).
(8) Majm`a Az-Zawayd, (10/136).
(9) See: Tahdhib At-Tahdhib (6/195) and Tabat Al Mudallisin, p (40). Note: The printed copies of this reference contains error with about what was quoted from Al Bukhari, so, please, see Tarikh Al Bukhari printed with the title of ‘As-Saghir’ (1/99).
(10) Tabat Al Mudallisin, p (40).
(11) Tabat Al Mudallisin, p (40).
(12) Al Ikmal, (517).
(13) Lisan Al Mizan, (7/56), and T`ajil Al Manf`ah, p (490).
(14) Tahdhib Al Kamal, (2/111).
(15) At-Tarikh Al Kabir, (7/288) and Al Kuna, p (39).
(16) Ath-Thiqat, (7/449, 659).
(17) Al Kuna, (Manuscript, plate No.193/b).
(18) Comment of Ahmad Shakir on Al Musnad, (5/267).
(19) The Hadith is: “Who forgot the name of Allah at the beginning of his eating...” reported by Ibn Hibban – Al Ihsan, (7/322, 323 Hadith No. 5190) and At-Tabarani in Al Mo`ajam Al-Kabir, (10/210 Hadith No.10 354) –. He mentioned this Hadith after our Hadith, gapped with only one Hadith. This confirms the conclusion of Al Albani; because it suggests that At-Tabarani has mentioned him first with his name then he mentioned him secondly with his nickname. And Allah knows best. As well as Ibn As-Sunni has recorded it in his book ‘A`mal Al Yom Wal-Laylah’ or (The Work of Day and Night, (p 217.218 Hadith No. 459). Sheikh Al Albani has graded it as authentic in ‘As-Silsilah As-Sahihah’, (1/335 336 Hadith No. 198).