Episode 47: Section 12th: The Effects of Ethnic Heredity (1-2)
Episode 47: Section 12th: The Effects of Ethnic Heredity (1-2)
1 - The Hadith of Abu Hurayrah who said that a person from Banu Fazarah came to the Prophet (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) and said: "My wife has given birth to a black child.”(In fact, he was about to deny his paternity to him) whereupon the Messenger of Allah (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) asked: "Do you have any camels?” He answered: "Yes.” He asked again: “What is their color?” He said: "They are red.” Then he asked: "Is there a dusky one among them?” He answered: “Yes, there are dusky ones among them.” Then he asked: "How has it come about?” The person answered: "It is perhaps the strain to which it has reverted, then he (the Prophet) said: "It is perhaps the strain to which he (the child) has reverted.” (And he did not allow him to deny his paternity).(*)
Similar to that was narrated by Ibn `Umar as well.
As for the Hadith of Abu Hurayrah has two chains from him:
I) The narration of Sa`id ibn Musayyib which was reported by Al Bukhari (2) and Muslim (3), - the word belongs to him- (4), Abu Dawud (5), At-Tirmidhy (6), An-Nasa’i (7), Ibn Majah (8), Ibn Al Mubarak (9), Ash-Shafa`i (10), Abdur- Razzaq (11), Al Humaydi (12) and Ahmad (13). All of them have narrated it on the authority of Az-Zuhri, from Sa`id ibn Al Musayyib, from Abu Hurayrah like the above mentioned narration.
2) The narration of Abu Salamah ibn `Abdur-Rahman that was narrated by Al Bukhari (14), Muslim (15), and Abu Dawud (16). All of them have narrated it on the authority of Az-Zuhri, from Sa`id ibn Al Musayyib, from Abu Hurayrah similar to the above mentioned narration.
This is not a dispute about Az-Zuhri, but in fact, he has two Sheikhs in this Hadith.
2 - The Hadith of Ibn `Umar that begins with: "A man of the people of desert came to the Prophet (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) and said: "O Messenger of Allah! My wife gave birth to a black boy on my bed (i.e. in my bond of marriage) and we belong to a family who never had any black one!” He asked: “Have you any camel...” And so forth, the rest of Hadith is similar to the narration of Abu Hurayrah.
Reported by Ibn Majah (17) -singled out from the six -, `Oqayli (18), both of them have narrated this by the way of Abu Kurayb on the authority of `Aba’ah ibn Kulaib Al-Laithi Abu Ghassan, from Juwayriyah ibn Asma’ , from Nafi`, from Ibn `Umar.
Al Busayri said: "Such is in Sunan Ibn Majah that is pronounced as (`Ubadah ibn Kulayb) whilst the correct name is (`Aba’ah ibn Kulayb) as was clarified by Al Muzzi." (19)
Al `Oqayli Said: "`Aba’ah ibn Kulaib Al-Laithi has narrated it on the authority of Juwayriyah ibn Asma’ and was not followed up (i.e. does not have Mutab`ah)."
`Aba’ah ibn Kulaib was an authentic narrator but used to make mistakes. (20)
Juwayriyah ibn Asma’ was authentic. (21)
3 - The Hadith that reports that the Messenger of Allah (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) asked a person: “What was born to you?” The man answered: “O Messenger of Allah! What might be born to me, either boy, or girl? He (The Prophet) asked: “Whom does he resemble?” The man answered: “O Messenger of Allah! Either he resemble like his father or his mother.” Then the Prophet (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “No, do not say that, if the sperm falls into the womb Allah brings forth every characteristic between it and between Adam, (Meaning the embryo will inherit characteristics from as far back as Adam), did you not read this Verse in the Book of Allah the Almighty: “In whatever form He willed, He put you together.” (Al Infitar: 8) The Arabic word “Rakkabak” in this Ayah means “He shaped you” (*).
This Hadith was narrated on the authority of Rabah Al Lakhmi.
Similar to that -but in brief- was narrated on the authority of Malik ibn Al Huwayrith.
As for the Hadith of Rabah Al Lakhami was reported by Ibn Abu `Aasim (22), At-Tabari (23), At-Tabarani (24), and Abu Nu`aym (25), all of them have narrated it from the way of Ibn Al Haytham At-Ta’i on the authority of Musa ibn `Ali ibn Rabah, from his father, from his grandfather that the Prophet (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) said to him: “What was born to you?” and so on. However the word belongs to At-Tabari, but the Arabic word in his narration is “Salakak” instead of “Shakkalak”. The word is same in Jame`a Al `Ulum Wal Hikam that was inferred by the writer.
Al Haythami attributed it to At-Tabarani and said: "This includes Mutahhir ibn Al Haytham who was abandoned.” The same conclusion was given by Al Hafiz Ibn Hajar.(26)
Rabah is ibn Qasir Al Lakhmi about whom Ibn Al Athir said: "He belonged to Banu Al Qashib , the Egyptian, the grandfather of Musa ibn `Ali ibn Rabah who lived during the lifetime of the Prophet (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) and embraced Islam during the reign of Abu Bakr, when Hatib ibn Abu Balta`ah came as a representative of Abu Bakr to Al Muqawqis (Cyrus), he lodged at the tribe of (Banu Al Qashib) who resided at Barkut, a village in Egypt". (27) Al Hafiz ibn Hajar quoted this from Ibn Yunus and added saying:" Yahya ibn Ishaq – an authentic narrator –narrated on the authority of Musa ibn `Ali who said: "I heard my father saying that his father lived during the era of the Prophet (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) and embraced Islam during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr.” End of quote. Then Al Hafiz ibn Hajar commented saying: "This was reported by Al Bukhari in his book At-Tarikh As-Saghir." (28)
This Hadith was attributed by As-Suyuti to Al Bukhari in his book At-Tarikh(29) and also to At-Tabari, Ibn Al Mundhir, Ibn Shahin, Ibn Qani` and Ibn Mardawayh. (30)
(1) The Arabic word Al Awraq means the black and Al Wurqah denotes the blackness. An-Nihayah Fi Gharib Al Hadith. (5/175)
(*) Creation of man between medicine and Qur’an. (p.152)
(2) Sahih Al Bukhari -Book of Divorce – Chapter: If a husband denies indirectly his paternity to the child (9/442 Hadith No.5305) and Book of limits and punishments set by Allah (Al Hudud) Chapter: What was narrated regarding indirect false accusation of adultery (At-T`aridh) (12/175 Hadith No.6847)
(3) Sahih Muslim - Book of Al Li’`an (Invoking curse)- (2/1137 Hadith No. 1500).
(4) About the phrases between the two brackets, Muslim concludes that they were added by some narrators and were put by the writer in the first context.
(5) Sunan Abu Dawud -Book of Divorce – Chapter: If the husband doubts in his paternity to the child (2/694, 695 Hadith No. 2260, 2261).
(6) Sunan At-Tirmidhy–Book of loyalty and gift- Chapter: What was narrated regarding the denial by a person of his paternity to his child (4/ 382 Hadith No. 2128)
(7) Sunan An-Nasa’i- Book of Divorce – Chapter: If a husband accuses indirectly his wife of adultery and doubts in his paternity to his child and wanted to deny his paternity. (6/178,189 Hadith No. 3478, 3479, 3480)
(8) Sunan Ibn Majah - Book of Marriage – Chapter: If a man suspected his paternity to his child (1/645 Hadith No. 2002).
(12) Musnad Al Humaydi (2/464, 465 Hadith No. 1084)
(13) Al Musnad (2/233, 234, 239 279, 409).
(14) Sahih Al-Bukhari - Book of holding fast to the Qur'an and Sunnah- Chapter: Who included a principle in practice to a prescribed principle (that was mentioned in Qur’an and Prophetic Sunnah) (13/296 Hadith No. 7314)
(15) Sahih Muslim (2/1137,1138).
(16) Sunan Abu Dawud (Hadith No.2262)
(17) Sunan Ibn Majah (1/645,646 Hadith No. 2003)
(18) Adh-Dho`afa’ (3/417).
(19) Misbah Az-Zujajah (2/120). The printed copy of Sunan Ibn Majah that I have, contains the name correctly, perhaps the editor of the book has corrected it, or the copy of Al Busayri contained the mistake and the editor of the book quoted the words of Al Busayri and altered it.
(20) Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p.289)
(21) Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. 143).
(*) Creation of man between medicine and Qur’an (p. 149).
(22) Al Ahahad Wal Mathani (5/14 Hadith No. 2549).The Hadith was mentioned in brief.
(23) Tasfir At-Tabari: (Jame`a Al Bayan...) (30/87).
(24) Al Mo`ajam Al Kabir (5/74 Hadith No.4624).
(25) M`arifat As- Sahabah (1/245/B).
(26) Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. 535).
(27) Usud Al Ghabah(2/203).
(28) Al Isabah (2/192, 193), I have searched for this in the printed copy entitled “As-Saghir” but I could not find it there, perhaps it supports the opinion of those who concluded that the printed copy entitled “As-Saghir” is in fact “Al Awsat”. And Allah knows best.
(29) I did not find it in any of two printed copies; perhaps, it is in missing copy or in any other copy of Al Kabir.