2 – The Hadith of `A’ishah:
A – “Choose well (your mates) for your children, marry competent mates, and give in marriage to them.” (*).
B – “Choose well (your mates) for your children, for women give birth to (children who are) like their brothers and sisters (maternal aunts and uncles).” (**)
C – “Choose well (your mates) for your children, and do not marry but suitable (wives).” (***)
D - “Choose well (your mates) for your children because children bear the characteristics of their parents.” (****)
E – “Seek suitable wives for your children because a child may resemble its maternal uncles." (*****)
These are the words reported in the narration of `A’ishah and their explanations are as follows:
This Hadith was only narrated by Ibn Majah (1), as it was reported by Ibn Hibban (2) in his book (Al Majruhin) "Untrustworthy narrators," by Ibn `Ady (3), Ad-Daraqutni (4), Al Hakim (5), Al Quda`i (6), Al Bayhaqi (7), Al Khatib ( 8), and Ibn Al Jawzi from his way (9). All of them narrated the Hadith on the authority of Al Harith ibn `Imran Al Ja`fari from Hisham ibn `Urwah, from his father, from her (`A’ishah) with the words of the Hadith (a). However, Ibn `Adi, Al Khatib and Ibn Al Jawzi reported the Hadith with the words of Hadith (c), and the Hadith was abbreviated by Al Quda`i.
Al Busayri said: "This chain of narration includes Al Harith ibn `Imran Al Madani upon whom Abu Hatim said: (He is not a trustworthy narrator, and the Hadith which he narrated has no origin i.e., he meant this Hadith). Ibn `Adi said: ”The weakness of his narrations are crystal-clear.” Moreover, Ad-Daraqutni said: "His narrations are abandoned.” (10) End of quote.
Furthermore, Al Hakim mentioned the narration of `Ikrimah ibn Ibrahim to this narration then said: "This Hadith has an authentic chain of transmission, but was not reported by Al Bukhari and Muslim.”
Adh-Dhahabi traced back the chain of transmission and said: "Al Harith is accused of fabricating Hadith and `Ikrima was graded as untrustworthy narrator.” As for Al Harith, Al Hafiz Ibn Hajar said about him: ”He is untrustworthy narrator and Ibn Hibban accused him of fabricating Hadiths.” (11)
Furthermore, the chain of transmission was traced back by a number of narrators on the authority of Hisham ibn `Urwah, of those narrators:
1 – Al Hakam ibn Hisham: His Mutaba`ah (tracing back of the chain of transmission of the Hadith) was reported by Ibn Abu Ad-Dunya and Ibn `Asakir from Abu An-Nadr Ad-Dimashqi Abu Ishaq ibn Ibrahim Al Ashqar, from Hisham ibn `Urwah as reported in Hadith (a).
This chain of transmission was graded as good.
Al Hakam ibn Hisham is Ath-Thaqafi Al `Uqayli (a truthful narrator) (14). Abu An-Nadr Ad-Dimashqi Ishaq ibn Ibrahim Al Ashqar was (Trustworthy but was graded as untrustworthy by no evidence). (15)
However, Al Khatib criticized this chain of transmission and said: "The verifiers of Hadith have differed about Al Hakam ibn Hisham Ath-Thaqafi Al `Uqayli in this narration. Abu An-Nadr Ishaq ibn Ibrahim Ad-Dimashqi reported the Hadith on his authority from Hisham, and Hisham ibn `Ammar reported it on the authority of Hakam ibn Hisham from Mandal ibn `Ali from Hisham, but all his ways are weak." End of quote.
Hisham ibn `Ammar is (an authentic narrator and a reciter, nevertheless when he became old, he accepted weak narrations, so his earlier narrations were more authentic).
Abu Zar`ah and Abu Hatim said about this narration: "It was narrated by Hisham ibn `Ammar and Al Hakam ibn Hisham from Mandal on the authority of Hisham." (16) So, perhaps Al Hakam ibn Hisham heard it first from Mandal, afterwards he heard it from Hisham. Thus, its chain of transmission is good because it was authentically proven that Al Hakam ibn Hisham heard Hadiths from Hisham ibn `Urwah. And Allah knows best!
2 - Mandal ibn `Ali whose Mutaba`ah was reported by Al Khatib, Abu Zar`ah, and Abu Hatim as you see. However, Mandal is untrustworthy narrator, but is ok in Mutaba`ah. (17)
3 – Ja`far ibn Khalid Az-Zubayry: He is also called Ja`far ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid. Abu Zar`ah, Abu Hatim, (18) Al Bukhari, (19) and Ibn Abu Hatim mentioned his Mutaba`ah. Abu Hatim said: "my father and I heard some narrations from him, and he was a trustworthy narrator." (20) Ibn Hibban included him among authentic narrators. (21) Furthermore, Al Bukhari did not mention neither validation or invalidation about him, but Adh-Dhahabi reported from Al Bukhari that he said: "His narrations of Hadith should not be accepted." Adh-Dhahaby reported from Al Azdi that he said: "His narrations are of weird chain of transmission." (22) Perhaps Abu Zar`ah and Abu Hatim did not depend on his Mutaba`ah because of this reason. And Allah knows best!
4 - `Ikrimah ibn Ibrahim: Ibn Abu Ad-Dunya, (23) Al Hakim, (24) and Al Bayhaqi reported his Mutaba`ah from Ziyad ibn Ayyub from Siwar ibn `Imarah with similar words to the Hadith mentioned under (a) according to Ibn Abu Ad-Dunya, but Al Hakim and Al Bayhaqi reported the Hadith with the words of Al Harith.
Al Hakim has graded it as authentic but Adh-Dhahabi said: ".... `Ikrimah was an untrustworthy narrator.“ Yahya and Abu Dawud said about him: "He is an untrustworthy narrator." An-Nasa’i said: "He is a weak narrator." And Al `Uqayli said: ”The chains of his narrations are confused.” Ibn Hibban said: "He used to alter narrations and patch up the broken chains of transmission (Al Marasil), and his narrations are not reliable.” Ya`qub ibn Sufyan said: “His narrations are rejected.” Al Bazar said: "He is untrustworthy." Abu Ahmad Al Hakim said: "Not a trustworthy narrator." (25).
Siwar ibn `Imarah is (a truthful but sometimes disagree trustworthy narrators) (26) and his narrations in the narrations of Al Hakim and Al Bayhaqi are disregarded. Al Muzzi mentioned him among the teachers of Ziyad although he did not mention `Ikrimah among his teachers nor among the teachers of Ziyad. (27) And Allah knows best!
5 –Saleh ibn Musa: Ad-Daraqutni (28) and Ibn Al Jawzi from his way (29) reported his Mutaba`ah; the wordings of the Hadith is as follows: ”Choose righteous places (wives) for your sperms.”
Saleh ibn Musa is At-Talhi At-Taymi (a disregarded narrator). (30)
6 - Abu Umayyah ibn Ya`la: Ad- Daraqutni (31), and from his way Ibn Al Jawzi (32) reported his Mutaba`ah with similar word to the narration mentioned under (a), but with addition of “beware of marrying the Zanj, (this is applicable only to a specific group of black people who were idol worshipping), for it is a deformed creation.” (33)
Abu Umayyah is Isma`il ibn Ya`la Ath-Thaqafi whom Ibn Abu Hatim mentioned his Mutaba`ah then asked his father about him? His father said: "Weak in narration of Hadith." (34) Yahya said about him: "He is weak and his narrations are disregarded." Murrah said: “His narrations are disregarded." An-Nasa'i and Ad-Daraqutni said: “His narrations are disregarded.” Al Bukhari said: "The critics remained silent about him." And Abu Zar`ah said: "A weak narrator, his narrations are weak, and untrustworthy.” Abu Ahmad Al Hakim said:"He is not a strong narrator according to the verifiers of narrators." And As-Saji said: "A weak narrator." (35)
7 – Hisham, the freed slave of `Uthman: Abu Na`im (36) reported his Mutaba`ah from the way of Haytham ibn `Adi on the authority of Hisham with similar words to the words of Abu Umayyah.
Hisham is Ibn Ziyad, Abu Miqdam about whom Al Hafiz said:” (His narrations are disregarded). (37)
Al Haytham ibn `Adi is Abu `Abdur-Rahman At-Ta'i whom Al Bukhari, Yahya, Abu Dawud, As-Saji, Abu Hatim, and An-Nasa'i accused of lying. And Ad-Daraqutni said about him: "His narrations are disregarded." (38)
Moreover, Al Khatib reported the narration of Hisham then said: "It was narrated by Abu Miqdam Hisham ibn Ziyad from Hisham ibn `Urwah from his father from the Prophet (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) directly (As ‘Mursal’ or without mentioning the Companion’s name) and that is more similar to be right."
However, the Hadith was traced back to the Prophet (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) by someone who was more trustworthy than Hisham ibn Ziyad as was explained before, so their narration is not weak because of Hisham, but perhaps he had neglected and did not mention the Companion’s name. And Allah knows best!
8 - Muhammad ibn Marwan As-Suddi: Ibn Hibban mentioned his Mutaba`ah and said: "He used to narrate fabricated narration from trustworthy narrators, his narration should never be written but only for support and cannot be used as a proof.” End of quote."(39)
Al Hafiz Ibn Hajar said about him: (accused of lying). (40)
9 – Ayyub ibn Waqid: Al Khatib mentioned his Mutaba`ah (41) and Al Hafiz said about him: (His narrations are disregarded). (42)
10 - Yahya ibn Hashim As-Simsar: Al Khatib mentioned his Mutaba`ah, but Yahya ibn Ma`in, Abu Hatim, and Saleh Jazrah accused him of lying. And Ibn `Adi said: "He was in Baghdad and used to fabricate Hadith and steal narrations." And Al `Uqayli said: "He used to fabricate Hadith and attribute it to trustworthy narrators." An-Nasa'i and others said: "His narrations are disregarded." (44)
This is what I was able to find out about the "complete Mutaba`ah" of Al Harith ibn `Imran. However, there are some "Incomplete Mutaba`ah", of which are the following:
11 – The Mutaba`ah of Qatadah on the authority of `Urwah which was reported by Ad-Daraqutni (45) and Al Khatib. Ad-Daraqutni said: "Narrated only by Al Mukhtar ibn Manih from Qatadah, from`Urwah, from `A'ishah, and no one narrated it from `Urwah other than Abu Mu`awiyah." End of quote.
Then I found this Mutaba`ah in the narration of Ibn Abu Shaybah (46), who said: Abu Mu`awiyah told him on the authority of Al Mukhtar ibn Manih form Qatadah, from `Urwah who reported that the Messenger of Allah (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Choose (righteous wives) for your children.” He narrated the Hadith in brief without mentioning the name of the Companion. However, its chain of transmission is connected according to the narration of Ad-Daraqutni and Al Khatib. Does it mean that the broken chain of transmission, which was recorded in the book of Ibn Abu Shaybah, is an error either from the copyist or the publisher? It is possible because if the chain of transmission is broken, it would become a proof to the opinion of Al Khatib that the Hadith is a Mursal (A Hadith in which the name of the Companion is disregarded From the chain of transmission).
However, Al Bukhari stated in the profile of Mukhtar ibn (Manih) (47) that he narrated on the authority of Qatadah, from `Azrah, from the Prophet (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him), but Abu Mu`awiyah narrated it on the authority of Al Mukhtar as “Mursal".
Qatadah narrated it on the authority of `Azrah ibn Tamim and `Azrah ibn `Abdur- Rahman. (48)
Al Mu`alammi said that a copy of "At-Tarikh Al Kabir" contained `Urwah, however Al Mizzi did not mention Mukhtar neither among the narrators of `Urwah nor among his teachers.” (49) So, if the statement of Al Mizzi is true, it supports the narration of Ibn Abu Shaybah. And Allah knows best!
As for Mukhtar ibn Manih, I did not find anyone graded him as a trustworthy narrator except Ibn Hibban.
12 – Yahya ibn Sa`id reported on the authority of `Isa ibn Maymun from Qasim ibn Muhammad, from `A’ishah with the wordings of Hadith mentioned under (b).
It was reported by Ibn `Adi (50) and Ibn Al Jawzi from his chain of transmission (51). Ibn `Adi said that he was informed by `Umar ibn Sinan on the authority of Hisham ibn `Abdul Malik, from Yahya ibn Sa`id… This chain of transmission includes `Isa ibn Maymun Al Madani, the freed slave of Al Qasim ibn Muhammad who was a weak narrator. (52)
Yahya ibn Sa`id is Al `Attar Al Himsi who was a weak narrator. (53)
Hisham ibn `Abdul Malik is Al Yazani (a trustworthy narrator who sometimes confused narrations. (54)
I was unable to identify the teacher of Ibn `Adi.
These are the Mutaba`at (tracing back the chain of transmission of the Hadith). As for the Ash-Shawahid (Hadiths similar to this narration either in words or in meanings), I could find five which will be mentioned in detail in the next episode.
(*) - The journey of faith in the human body (p. 33).
(**) – Ibid.
(***) - Between medicine and Islam (p. 14).
(****) - Rearing Children in Islam (1 / 37).
(*****) - Ibid.
(******) - If a Hadith is reported through the following chain for example: Hammad ibn Salamah, from Ayyub, from Ibn Sirin, from Abu Hurayrah, from the Prophet (may the peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him), research would be done to ascertain whether another trustworthy reporter has narrated it from Ayyub; if so, it will be called Mutab`ah Tammah (full follow-up); if not, a reporter other than Ayyub narrating from Ibn Sirin would be sought: if so, it will be called Mutab`ah Qasirah (incomplete follow-up). Whereas Mutab`ah applies to the Isnad, i.e. other narrations from the same reporters, a narration which supports the text (meaning) of the original Hadith, although it may be through a completely different Isnad, is called Ash-Shahid "witness ".
(1) - Sunan Ibn Majah in the book of Marriage, chapter on competence in marriage (1 / 633 Hadith No. 1968).
(2) - Book of untrustworthy narrators (Al Majruhin) (1/225).
(3) – Al Kamil (2/195).
(4) - Sunan Ad-Daraqutni (3/299 Hadith No. 198).
(5) – Al Mustadrak (2/163).
(6) – Musnad Ash- Shihab (1/390 Hadith No. 437).
(7) – As-Sunan Al Kubra (7/133) from the chain of transmission of Al Hakim.
(8) – The History of Baghdad (1/264).
(9) – Al `Ilal Al Mutanahiyah (2/123, 124 Hadith No. 1009).
(10) – Misbah Az-Zujajah (2/109).
(11) – Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. 147), see also (Al Majruhin) (1/225).
(12) – Al `Iyal (1/280 Hadith No. (130)).
(13) – The History of Damascus (5/241).
(14) - Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. 176).
(15) - Ibid (p. 99).
(16) – Al `Ilal by Ibn Abu Hatim (1/407 Hadith No. 1219) and see (1/403 Hadith No. 1208).
(17) - Taqrib At-Tahdhib p. (545).
(18) - Al `Ilal by Ibn Abu Hatim (1/407 Hadith No. 1219).
(19) – At-Tarikh Al Kabir (2/189,190).
(20) – Al Jarh Wat-Ta`dil (2/487).
(21) – Ath-Thiqat (6/133, 134).
22 – Al Mizan (1 / 416), Al Hafiz remained silent about him in Al Lisan (2/124). As for the statement of Al Bukhari which was quoted by Adh-Dhahabi, I could not find it in At-Tarikh Al Kabir, so it should be verified.
(23) – Al `Iyal (1/282 Hadith No.131).
(24) – Al Mustadrak (2/163).
(25) – Al Mizan (3/89.90), Al Lisan (4/181,182).
(26) - Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. (259)).
(27) – Tahdhib Al Kamal (1/437, 559).
(28) - Sunan Ad-Daraqutni (3/298 299 Hadith No. 196).
(29) – Al `Ilal Al Mutanahiyah (2/124 Hadith No. 1010).
(30) - Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. 274).
(31) - Sunan Ad-Daraqutni (3/299 Hadith No. 197).
(32) – Al `Ilal Al Mutanahiyah (Hadith No. 1011).
(33) – This addition is weird but rather fabricated as Ibn Al Qayyim said: "The narrations regarding the condemnation of Ethiopians and Sudanese are all lies." Al Manar Al Munif (p. 101).
(34) - Al `Ilal by Ibn Abu Hatim (1/404).
(35) - Al Mizan (1/254, 255), and Lisan Al Mizan (1/445).
(36) – Dhikr Akhbar Isfahan (1/314).
(37) - Taqrib At-Tahdhib p. (572).
(38) - Al Mizan (4 / 324) and Lisan Al Mizan (6/209, 210).
(39) - Book of Al Majruhin (2/286).
(40) - Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. 506).
(41) – The History of Baghdad (2/264).
(42) - Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. 119).
(43) – The History of Baghdad (2/264).
(44) – Al Mizan (4/412) and Lisan Al Mizan (6/279,280).
(45) - Atraf Al Gharayb Wal Afrad arranged by Abu Al Fadl Muhammad ibn Zahir Al Maqdisi- (1/342).
(46) – Musannaf Ibn Abu Shaybah (4/2/363) who mentioned (Mukhtar ibn Masih), but it is clear that he is (Manih) as was mentioned by Ad-Daraqutni, and Al Khatib, as was reported in Al Jarh Wat-Ta`dil (8/312) and in Ath-Thiqat of Ibn Hibban (7/488). However, the name that was mentioned in At-Tarikh Al Kabir (7/386) is Sabih.
(47) - See previous comment.
(48) - See At-Tarikh Al Kabir (7/65).
(49) – Tahdhib Al Kamal (2/928, 1121).
(50) – Al Kamil (5/242).
(51) – Al `Ilal Al Mutanahiyah (2/124 Hadith No. 1012).
(52) - Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. 441).
(53) - Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. 591).
(54) - Taqrib At-Tahdhib (p. 573).