Proprieties of marriage (3 - 8)
Adornment of the bride:
It is desirable for both spouses to adorn themselves for the wedding day and in every condition by all kinds of adornment. However, a person should avoid the prohibited matters such as Al wasl (adding false hair to the hair) or wearing what is so-called (wig), Washm (tattoo), Nams (removing hair from the eyebrows), and Falj (setting teeth apart) in addition to other prohibited matters. Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that "the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) cursed women wear false hair, women who seek help with other women to add artificial hair to her own (for beautification), the tattooer, and the female being tattooed." (1) `Alqamah reported on the authority of `Abdullah that he said: "Allah curses women who use tattoo, the women who seek the help of other women to tattoo themselves, women who seek the help of other women to remove facial hair, and women who set their teeth apart for beautification because they change the creation of Allah. `Abdullah Added: Why do not I curse those whom the Prophet (peace be upon him) cursed while it is written in the book of Allah. A woman said: I have read the entire volume of the Qur'an but I did not see that. He said: If you had read it, you would have found it written. Have not you read Allah's Saying: "And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad peace be upon him) gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it)"? The woman said: Surely, your wife is doing one of these. `Abdullah said to her: Go and see for yourself. `Alqamah said: She entered on the wife of `Abdullah but did not see any of these beautifications, then she went to him and said: I did not see any of these beautifications on your wife. He said: If she had done that for me, I would not have had sexual intercourse with her. (2) He also said: If I had done so, I would not have applied the will of the righteous servant who said: "I wish not, in contradiction to you, to do that which I forbid you." (3)
Both Hadiths denote the prohibition of some types of these beautifications as follows: - Tattooing which is injecting pigment into the skin with the help of a needle. (4)
- Wearing false hair and seeking the help of other women to add artificial hair. (5)
- Removing the facial hair, especially the hair of the eyebrow. Seeking the help of other women to remove facial hair. (6)
- Setting teeth apart through a file to make the teeth look nice. This is done by women whose teeth are so close or old women who like to look younger. (7)
It is prohibited to reveal parts of the body which are not to be seen for the purpose of beautification and cleaning. It was reported on the authority of Abu Malih that he said: Some women from the Levant (the region covering Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine) entered to `A'ishah. She said: You are the women who enter public baths [i.e., in old times, people used to go to public baths to clean and treat themselves of any skin disease because of the lack of private bathrooms in homes] (8) the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "There is no woman uncovers herself outside her house, but she violates the protection (or shyness) between her and Allah (may He be Glorified and Exalted)." In another narration: "She violates her protection (or shyness)." (9)
In the narration of At-Tirmidhy and Ibn Majah "in other than her husband's house." Women are commanded to cover themselves in order not to be seen by marriageable men, so if they uncover their bodily parts, which should be covered, in public baths without necessity, they violate the command of Allah with taking coverage. At-Tayby said: Allah (may He be Exalted) commanded them to take coverage with piety and shyness, so if they do not fear Allah and expose their parts which should be covered, they violate the command of Allah with coverage. (10)
Imam Ahmad said: These narrations make up strong proofs that women should not enter public baths at all because they are commanded to cover themselves. (11) Abu Ayyub Al Ansary (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "He who believes in Allah and the Last Day must entertain his guest. He who believes in Allah and the Last Day must not enter public baths without a lower garment. He who believes in Allah and the Last Day must say good speech or to keep silent. He who believes in Allah and the Last Day of your women must not enter public baths." The narrator said: That piece of news reached `Umar ibn `Abdul-`Aziz (may Allah be pleased with him) during his caliphate, so he wrote to Abu Bakr ibn `Amr ibn Hazm saying: Ask Muhammad ibn Thabit about [the authenticity of] his Hadith. Abu Bakr ibn `Amr asked him then wrote to `Umar ibn `Abdul-`Aziz. Thereupon, `Umar forbade women to go to public baths. (12)
If there is a dire need for a woman to enter public baths, she should do so, as if she is having a disease. Makhul reported: `Umar ibn Al Khattab wrote to the emirs of his army: A man must not enter public baths without a lower garment nor a woman except she is sick. (13)
Likewise, a woman should not neglect the perfection of her ablution for fear of spoiling her adornment or delaying Salah from its prescribed time or committing any prohibited matter on the wedding day.
(1) Reported by Al Bukhari in the chapter of women who add artificial hair to theirs, Hadith No. 5598 5/2218, and reported by Muslim in the chapter on the prohibition of adding artificial hair and seeking the help of other women to add artificial hair, Hadith No. 5693 6/166.
(2) Reported by Al Bukhari with the same wording in the book of Tafsir, chapter on Surat Al Hashr, Hadith No. 4604 4/1853 and was reported by Muslim with his own wordings in the chapter on the prohibition of adding artificial hair and seeking the help of other women to add artificial hair, Hadith No. 5695 6/166.
(3) Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 1/415.
(4) An-Nihayah Fi Gharib Al Hadith 5/189.
(5) An-Nihayah Fi Gharib Al Hadith 5/425.
(6) See: An-Nihayah Fi Gharib Al Hadith 5/253, Gharib Al Hadith of Ibn Al Jawzy 2/437, Tuhfat Al Ahwazy 8/55, `Awn Al Ma`bud 11/150, and Fathul-Bary 10/377.
(7) See: Fathul-Bary 10/372, An-Nihayah Fi Gharib Al Hadith 3/912, the etiquettes of wedding p. 131.
(8) The meaning of baths is the steam baths which are known nowadays as the Moroccan steam baths.
(9) Reported by Ahmad in several positions, Hadith No. 25407 42/251, Hadith No. 25446, Hadith No. 25668, Hadith No. 26347, Hadith No. 25647, and Hadith No. 26304 with an authentic chain of narration. The Hadith was also graded as authentic by Sheikh Shu`ayb Al Arna'ut in his commentary on Musnad Ahmad. The Hadith was also reported by Ibn Majah in the chapter on entering public baths, Hadith No. 3750 2/1234, and was graded as authentic by Sheikh Al Albany in his verification of Sunan Ibn Majah. Al Hakim also reported the Hadith in his Mustadrak in the book of manners, Hadith No. 7780 4/321 and Adh-Dhahaby in At-Talkhis said: Authentic according to the conditions of Al Bukhari and Muslim. At-Tabarany also reported the Hadith in Al Mu`jam Al Awsat, Hadith No. 4743 5/84, Abu Ya`la in his Musnad, Hadith No. 4680 8/138, `Abdur-Razzaq in his classification, chapter on baths for women, Hadith No. 1132 1/294, and Al Bayhaqy in Shu`ab Al Iman, chapter on baths, Hadith No. 7771 6/157.
(10) `Awn Al Ma`bud 11/32. Likewise said Al Munawy in Fayd Al Qadir 3/176.
(11) Reported by Al Bayhaqy in Shu`ab Al Iman 6/158.
(12) Reported by Ibn Hibban in his Sahih in the book of prohibition and permission, Hadith No. 5597 12/409; Al Arna'ut said: An authentic Hadith. It was also reported by Al Hakim in the book of manners, Hadith No. 7783 4/321 and said: This is an authentic Hadith, however Al Bukhari and Muslim did not report it. Adh-Dhahaby said: This is an authentic Hadith. Al Bayhaqy reported it in As-Sunan Al Kubra, chapter on Hadiths reported about entering public baths, Hadith No. 15204 7/309, At-Tabarany in Al Mu`jam Al Awsat, Hadith No. 8658 8/287, and Al Bayhaqy in Shu`ab Al Iman, chapter on public baths, Hadith No. 7769 6/156.
(13) Reported by Ibn Abu Shaybah in his Musannaf (a book on the classification of Hadith), chapter on the one who said: If I enter them [i.e., public baths], you may enter them, Hadith No. 1186 1/110, and `Abdur-Razzaq in his Musannaf, chapter on women's entering to public baths, Hadith No. 1132 - 1/259.