Likewise, he was the one who took the initiative in forming a confederation between the Jews and the Ansar against foreign invaders in order to insure peaceful existence between all the people in the city. The Jews were the first to break the terms of the agreement. And then,

when Muhammed peace be and blessings upon him reminded them of their mutual obligations they insulted him and behaved insolently.

Another thing to remember in such agreements is that when the other party proves treacherous (8:58) or violates the terms of the agreement (9:7‐8), then it must be openly thrown back to them and made clear to them that there is no longer a state of peace. According to the verse, if you want to break a treaty for the reasons mentioned above,

then you must ʺthrow their treaty openly before them.ʺ It is thus ʺunlawful to make a unilateral decision to terminate an agreement, even if the Muslims feel that theother party is not observing the terms strictly and properly, or if they are afraid that the other party will turn treacherous at the first opportunity.ʺ Therefore it forbids them to treat the other party in a way that implies that there has been no treaty with them at all. On the other hand, this verse binds the Muslims to inform the other party in clear words, before taking any steps against it,

that the treaty with it has been terminated.

This is essential, so that the other party should have no misunderstanding whatsoever that the treaty is still in force.

The Prophet peace be and blessings upon him based the international policy of Islam on this verse. He decreed, He who has made a treaty with another party is bound by it until the expiry of its term.

Or, if obliged to because of a breach by the other party, he should throw it before the other party, so that both may be set on an equal footing.

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