Known as Khusro Parvez to the Arabs, he was the fourth son of Hormouz and the grandson of Chosroes I, Anushirvan the Just. The murder of Hormouz in 590 A.D. was succeeded by enthronement of Chosroes II, but after suffering a defeat at the hands of a rebel chief, Bahram, he had to solicit the protection of Maurice, the Byzantine
The fugitive prince was helped by Maurice with a powerful army which restored his kingdom after two fierce battles on the banks of Zab and the confines of Madaʹin. While the majesty of the Persian Emperor was
revived, Phocas, who promoted himself to the vacant purple, killed his adopted father, Maurice. Chosroes II decided to avenge the death of Maurice and invaded the Byzantine dominions in 604 A.D. Chosroes II continued to extend his triumphant march to Constantinople, even after
the death of Phocas, rolling in the dust all the Byzantine provinces, Syria , Egypt and Asia Minor, in the rapid tide of his success.
By 616 A.D. Chosroes II had reached the summit of his victorious campaign for he seemed to announce the approaching dissolution of the Byzantine Empire.
But his insolent demands at last animated the dormant valor of Heraclius who put the Iranians to rout and penetrated into the heart of Persia. Chosroes II, had to ultimately leave his country and seek refuge in some far off place and thus the battle between the two empires came to an end in 628 A.D.
Chosroes II was, according to the unanimous verdict of historians, the greatest Emperor of Iran. In the East, his writ ran up to the northwestern parts of India.
(Iran ba ʹAhad Sasanian, p. 602)
During his rule, the glory and magnificence of royal court had surpassed the limits of fancy. Iran was, during this period, more than a match to any country of the world in its ostentatious living, luxury of its nobles and the splendid workmanship of its artisans. Writing about the
attainments of Chosroes II, the noted Arab historian At‐ Tabari says: ʺMade of a sterner stuff, he was the most prudent far‐sighted Emperor of Persia. Deeds of valor, exploits of victory, abundance of wealth, stroke of luck and favorable circumstances had so bunched up during his reign as never before. It was for these reasons that he came to be known as Pervez which meant victorious in Arabic.ʺ
(Tarikh Tabri, Vol. II, (Egypt), p. 137).
In the arts of civilization and ever‐new innovations of edibles and drink Iran was without any parallel.
(Tarikh Tabri, Vol. II, (Egypt), p. 995)
In the manufacture of perfumes it had attained perfection. The people had developed a taste for savory preparation, luscious liquors and the finest perfumes. Love of music had grown into craze, which had
stipulated its development in the reign of Chosroes II. He was so fond of amassing wealth and artifacts that when his treasures was transferred from an old building to a new one at Ctesiphon in 607‐8 A.D., it consisted of 468 million Mithqals of Gold valued at 375 million gold
sovereigns. In the thirteenth year of his reign, Chosroes II had 830 million Mithqals of gold in his exchequer.
The reign of Chosroes II lasted up to 37 years, after which hi son Sherveh took over.