the Prophet peace be and blessings upon him had written
ʺI begin with the name of Allah, the Beneficient, the Merciful.
From Muhammed, the Messenger of Allah, to Negus, the great King of Abyssinia. Peace be upon him who follows the guidance.
Glory be to Allah besides whom there is no God, the Sovereign, the Holy, the Peace, the Faithful, the Protector.
I bear witness that Jesus, the son of Mary, is the Spirit of God, and His Word that He cast unto Mary, the Virgin, the good, the pure, so that she conceived Jesus. God created him from His Spirit and His breathing as He created Adam by His hand and His breathing. I call you to God, the Unique, without any associate, and to His obedience and to follow me and to believe in that, which came to me, for I am the Messenger of God. I invite you and your men to the Great Lord. I have accomplished my task and my admonitions, so receive my advice. peace be
upon him who follows the Guidance. (Tabaqat Ibn Sʹad, Vol. III,
The Letter sent to Muqauqis, the chief of the Copts of Egypt, read:
I begin with the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
From Muhammed, the Messenger of Allah, to Muqauqis, the Chief of the Coptic. Peace be upon him who follows the guidance.
I call you to Islam that you may find peace, and God will give you a double reward. If you reject, then on you shall be the sin of your countrymen. O people of the Book, come to that which is common between you and us; that we will serve none but Allah, nor associate aught with him, nor take others for lords besides God. But if you turn
away, then say: bear witness that we are Muslims.ʺ
(Mawahib Landuniyah, Vol. III. Pp. 247‐48)