The Prophet peace be and blessings upon him remained in Makkah from Saturday to Wednesday. On Thursday morning he came to Mina along‐with the Muslims, performed the Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers and stayed there for the night. It was the night before Friday. After the sun had risen he moved for ‘Arafat where he saw the tent set up for him at Namirah.
God’s Messenger rested in the tent and when the sun had passed the meridian he ordered Qaswa to be brought.
When it was saddled for him he went down into the valley and addressed the people wherein he explained to them the fundamental principles of Islam and struck at the roots of polytheism and ignorance. He commanded to treat as inviolable and sacrosanct the life, honor and property of every person, as warranted by all the religions, and declared that all the usages and customs of the pagan past were abolished. The Prophet peace be and blessings upon him abolished the usury of the pre‐Islamic days although he allowed the recovery of the original sums lent to the debtors. In his sermon, the Prophet peace be and blessings upon him addressed the rights of women, threw light on the mutual obligations of the husband and wife and bade the people to deal kindly and provide food and clothing to their spouses in a fitting manner.
Thereafter, referring to the Book of Allah he told his companions that if they hold fast to it they would never fall into error. Finally, he told them that on the Day of Judgment, Allah would ask them about him, so what reply would they give on that day.
The entire congregation chorused, that they would testify that he had conveyed the message and fulfilled his mission. Then, raising his finger towards the sky, the Prophet peace be and blessings upon him said, “O Allah, be witness”, repeating it thrice.
He also asked those who are present to spread it out to those who were absent.
The sermon ended, and the Prophet peace be and blessings upon him asked Bilal to give the call to prayer. After the call was over, he performed the noon and afternoon prayers, making only two Ra’kats for each. It was then Friday, when the Prophet peace be and blessings upon him delivered this sermon.
The Prophet peace be and blessings upon him then mounted his camel and came to Mauqif, the place of standing, where he remained atop the camel until sunset, lamenting, beseeching and glorifying the Lord. He appeared to be tormented and disconsolate, repeatedly raising his hands in prayer to his chest, like a man bereaved and an indigent crying for his livelihood.
He was heard saying: “O God, You hear what I say; and see where I am; and know what I conceal or reveal. Nothing can remain hidden from Thee. I am tormented, indigent and miserable, seeking refuge with thee as one who is sorrow stricken and horrified. I acknowledge my sins and confess my faults; I call upon Thee like a beggar and cry unto Thee like an abased sinner; I beseech Thee like one who is dismayed and harassed, falling prone before Thee, and shedding tears; like one who has thrown oneself at Your feet and is licking the dust. O God, cause me not to fail in supplication to Thee; be Kind and Merciful unto me: Lo! You art the best of all those who are implored and the Most Generous of all the Bestower.”
It was then that God sent down the revelation:
“This day I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favor unto you, and have chosen for you as your religion Al‐Islam.” [Qur'an 5:3].
When the disc of the sun had disappeared, the Prophet peace be and blessings upon him took Usama up behind him and wended ahead slowly, holding the halter of his camel in a way that his head, lowered in submission to God, almost touched the saddle.