The ironclad oath of Abu Sufyan, as mentioned earlier, bound him to refrain from even splashing water over his head until he had wreaked havoc on the Muslims.
The chief of the Jewish tribe of Bani an‐Nadir, who offered the information he desired about Madinah. Thereupon Abu Sufyan succeeded in getting away after killing two of the Ansaars.
The Prophet peace be and blessings upon him got a warning of the evil raiders and went out in their pursuit. Abu Sufyan eluded the Prophet
peace be and blessings upon him but was obliged to throw away a good deal of his provisions consisting of food grains, especially parched
corn or al‐sawiq, and hence the expedition goes by such a name. (Ibn Hisham, Vol. II, pp. 144‐45).
The Jews of Madinah who first broke their covenant with the Prophet peace be and blessings upon him were Banu Qaynuqa. They contended with the Muslims and spoke scornfully of the Prophet peace be and blessings upon him. Ultimately, the Prophet peace be and blessings upon him besieged them ‐ the siege lasting for fifteen nights ‐ until Banu Qaynuqa surrendered unconditionally. The attack had been
instigated on the recommendation of ‘Abdullah b. Ubayy, the leader of the hypocrites. (Ibn Hisham Vol. II, pp. 47‐49)
Banu Qaynuqa operated a market in Madinah and practiced crafts such as that of the goldsmith trade. (Zad al‐ Ma’ad, Vol. p. 348)
They were forced to abandon the city although the number of people who could bear arms among them was seven hundred.
The Battle Of Uhud
The reason for this battle was that Quraysh wanted to avenge their tribesmen who were killed in the battle of Badr.
It was in the middle of Shawwal, 3 A.H. near mount Uhud, which were few kilometers to the north of Madinah. The Muslim force was 700 men, two horses, and 100 suits of armor. 50 men of the Muslim army were archers. Quraysh force was 3000 men, 200 horses, and 700 suits of armor.
In the beginning the polytheists had suffered an obvious rout. The ignominious retreat of the enemy troops and their women accompanying them taking to their heels made the archers certain of their victory. Uttering shouts of glee, they deserted their posts to despoil the enemy camp.
That was the main reason for the Muslim’s defeat, causing them to lose 70 men, where Quraysh lost 22 only.