In the name of Allah the Most Gracious the Most Merciful
Praise be to Allah lord of the worlds, He who has selected and favored with good morals whom He willed from [among] His creatures [mankind and jinn] … and peace and blessings be upon His chosen slave and messenger, the honest-one who speaks not from [his] whim… and peace and blessings be upon [the messenger's] kind and understanding family, companions [and followers]… and [may Allah] grant much peace.
Henceforth… These are brief words on Islamic morals and manners based upon Shari'ah [(Islamic law)] proof from the Book [(Holy Quran)] and accurate Sunnah [(Teachings, sayings and actions of Allah's Messenger Mohammad may Allah bless him and grant him peace)]. In which course we tried to maintain simple terminology and be bound to [Shari'ah] proof and tried to avoid unnecessary branching. We request from Allah to accept [this work] and make it beneficial, and to make it part of [our] good deeds, as He is the guardian of this [request] and the one able to fulfill it.
A preface to the definition of morality and the necessity of morals to human societies
Definition of morality
Arabic language definition: [It is] religion, habit and character(), and [a term] cast on the inner human attributes that may be described as fine and ugly(), such as truthfulness, honesty, shyness and the like.
Islamic terminology definition: Firm attributes in one's self, that have praiseworthy or ill effects in behavior(). Morality is [a term] cast on actions and conducts to state the good and bad contained within them. One might say: Truthfulness is a virtuous moral, and lying is a bad moral. In this sense, it may be defined as (good or bad willful behavioral attributes).
The necessity of morals for human societies
Morals are one of the main pillars in human life. It is morals that regulate the individual and guide his behavior to that which returns benefit to him, and they motivate him to strive to attain higher [degrees of] perfection and seriously pursue superior matters and good deeds. [Morals] are a social necessity that ensure people coexist in peace and stability, while acquiring what is theirs and performing what is required of them, and cooperating in achieving their interests.
By loosing virtuous morals and having their opposites become common, such as lying, cheating and betrayal… people's welfares are disturbed, and the ties of harmony and affection between them are severed, and thus they no longer feel secure amongst each other and no longer have mutual trust towards each other.
Among the witnesses on the necessity of morals to social life, is that if it were not for the merits of truthfulness then there would be no trust in [the fields of] science, knowledge and news. If it were not for honesty's merits in a human being, then an important connection is severed, of the many connections that keep him tied to his community, and people would no longer trust him on anything of significant value to them(). Such is the case with all noble morals, each time a moral is lost, in return a social tie is severed and eventually the society becomes loose and collapses.
(1) - Ibn Mandhour: Lisan Alarab, Alfairouzabady: Algamoose Almuheet; Both in Chapter Gaf Section Kha.
(2) - Ibn Alatheer: Annihayah fe Ghareeb Alhadeeth, Letter Kha, Chapter Kha with Lam (2/70).
(3) - AbdulRahman Almaidany: Alakhlag Alislameyah Waososuha (1/7).
(4) - See: Alakhlag Alislameyah Waososuha (1/31).