It was narrated that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with them, said: "Al-Fadhl (his brother) was riding behind the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, and a woman from the tribe of Khath‘am came and Al-Fadhl started looking at her and she started looking at him. The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, turned Al-Fadhl's face to the other side. The woman said, "O Allaah's Messenger! The obligation of Hajj enjoined by Allaah on His devotees has become due on my father and he is old and weak, and he cannot sit firm on the Mount; may I perform Hajj on his behalf?" The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, replied, "Yes, you may." That happened during the Hajj-Al-Widaa‘ (of the Prophet ). [Reported by Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]

Also, it was narrated that ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with them, said: "A woman from the tribe of Juhainah came to the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, and said, "My mother had vowed to perform Hajj but she died before performing it. May I perform Hajj on my mother's behalf?" The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, replied, "Yes, perform Hajj on her behalf. Had there been a debt on your mother, would you have paid it or not? So, pay Allaah's debt as He has more right to be paid." [Reported by Al-Bukhaari]

Both Hadeeths are about appointing a proxy for Hajj and we will have the following analyses regarding them:

Firstly, it is well established in the Islamic religion that it is incumbent upon the Muslim individual to perform Hajj to the Sacred House of Allaah The Almighty. It is the fifth pillar of Islam. It is obligatory for one to do it by himself whenever he meets its conditions which are: being Muslim, being an adult, being free, being of sound mind, and being able to do it. In addition to another condition for woman to make them six: Woman should have a Mahram who may be her husband or any male person whom a woman can never marry because of close relationship or lawful reason. Being financially able means that one has enough funds to get to the Sacred House of Allaah and back again like his food, water, cloth. It is a necessary ownership Or has the expenses of his journey to get to the sacred House of Allaah and back again. It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with them, said: "Provisions and a means of transportation is the meaning of the saying of Allaah The Almighty: {…For whoever is able to find thereto a way.} [Quran 3: 97] 

It is obligatory upon the one who met such conditions to hasten to perform Hajj.

Secondly, the first Hadeeth indicates that whoever is not able to perform Hajj by himself because he is elderly, or sick with an illness from which there is no hope of recovery for one may be very heavy and is not able to ride except with great difficulty or because he has a very weak body and the like, is obliged to appoint a proxy to perform the obligation of Hajj on his behalf. That is because it was stated in the Hadeeth: "The obligation of Hajj enjoined by Allaah on His devotees has become due on my father and he is old and weak, and he cannot sit firm on the Mount; may I perform Hajj on his behalf?" The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, replied, 'Yes, you may."

‘Abdullaah ibn Az-Zubayr, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated that a man from Khath‘am came to the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, and said: 'My father is an old man who cannot ride, and the Command of Allaah to perform Hajj has come. Will it be good enough if I perform Hajj on his behalf?' He, peace and blessing be upon him, said: 'Are you the oldest of his children?' He said: 'Yes.' He, peace and blessing be upon him, said: 'Then perform Hajj on his behalf.''

[Reported by Ahmad and An-Nasaa'i]

As for the one who is sick with an illness from which there is a hope of recovery, he cannot appoint a proxy for Hajj, and if he does that (appoints a proxy for Hajj), this will not be sufficient for him due to the indication of the two Hadeeths. 

Thirdly, the second Hadeeth indicates that whomever Hajj or ‘Umrah is obligatory upon but died before performing it, was physically and financially able, had enough time, and left a wealth, then all what is obligatory upon the deceased should be paid from all of his wealth. Jurists said whoever dies and owes a debt and Hajj becomes obligatory on him while his wealth cannot pay all of them, then the share of his Hajj should be taken from his wealth like all other debts so that Hajj may be performed on his behalf for Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {…So fear Allaah as much as you are able.} [Quran : ]

Also, the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said: "…and if I command you to do a thing, then do as much of it as you can." 

 

Fourthly, amongst the rulings of appointing the proxy in Hajj is that the proxy should have performed Hajj on his own behalf before performing it on behalf of others. If he (the proxy) performed Hajj on behalf of someone before not performing it on his own behalf, it will be the obligatory Hajj on him (i.e. the proxy). That is because it was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with them, said: "The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, heard a man saying: Labbayk (O Allaah! I hasten to you) on behalf of Shubrumah. He, peace and blessing be upon him, asked: 'Who is Shubrumah?' He replied, 'A brother or relative of mine.' He, peace and blessing be upon him, asked: 'Have you performed Hajj on your own behalf?' He [the man] said, 'No.' He, peace and blessing be upon him, said, 'Perform Hajj on your own behalf and then perform it on behalf of Shubrumah.' [Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah and Ibn Hibaan; Saheeh]

 

Fifthly, the first Hadeeth indicates that it is obligatory on the Muslim individual and especially the one who has engaged in the worship of Hajj to lower his gaze from the prohibited matters so that he may not corrupt his Hajj. That is because when the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, saw Al-Fadhl looking at the woman, he turned his face to the other side. Allaah The Almighty also Says (what means): {Hajj is [during] well-known months, so whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein [by entering the state of Ihraam], there is [to be for him] no Rafath (i.e. sexual relations) and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj…} [Quran 2: 197]

The Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, also said: "Whoever performs Hajj and does not commit any Rafath (i.e. sexual relations) or commit any evil will go back (free of) sin as on the day his mother bore him." [Reported by Muslim] 

There is absolutely no doubt that looking freely at prohibited matters is a form of Rafath. That is because scholars have interpreted it by sexual relations and its causes.

Muslim individual should keep away from all what can affect badly his Hajj and reward.

Sixthly, the two Hadeeths indicate hastening to observing dutifulness towards one's parents such as being dutiful for them when they become weak, old or after their death. Amongst the other forms of observing dutifulness with them are the prescribed acts of worship such as performing Hajj and ‘Umrah, spending, giving charity, invoking Allaah The Almighty for them and the like. It is a good sign for the Muslim individual in this life to be guided to be dutiful towards his parents as much possible as he can. This really implies salvation and success in this life and the life to come.  

 

 

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